It can be stated, then, that the task of cataloguing translator's notes as either authorial or allographic
paratexts is affected by the status bestowed on the translator and the translated text.
Thus, if one of the qualities of digital materials is to be allographic
, that is, to enable copying and manipulation and to be used in different ways and for different purposes, this aspect may need to be accommodated in the process of preservation.
But, Genette notes, allographic
arts like the latter two, though they depend on performance or on reproduction through such things as the printing press for their execution, originate in the "ideal object of immanence," the result of the unique autographic act of writing a novel or composing a score (Immamnence 17).
The philosopher Nelson Goodman offers a way to think about the idea of authenticity in the arts: if a copy of an artwork does nor count as an instance of it, the artwork is autographic; if a copy does count as an instance, the artwork is allographic
While Parpola maintains that there are at least 200 basic signs, there are 385 (along with allographic
variations) in the sign list given on pp.
Developed under the influence of Happenings, performance art, and institutional critique, this model privileges the actor's singular, bodily presence as opposed to the reproducible role, thereby emphasizing the autographic as opposed to allographic
component of performance.
Whether the work in question is allographic
(as in the case of a literary work, where any copy is an instance of it) or autographic (as in the case of a painting, where the physical object is identical with it), we have traditionally come to the question of the work with a series of assumptions: that the work is in some sense objective, standing over and apart from its maker and its perceivers and that, conversely, its histories of making and reception stand over and apart from its essential nature as a work; that the work has the potential to persist over time; and that it has an identity that sustains true descriptions of it (for example, that the Iliad is in hexameter).