phoneme /tf/, conversely, appears only once in NWS (ancha /'antfa/ "wide") and only once in BCW (chanza /'tfan[?
Likewise, the presence of affricates
suggests the presence of fricatives.
Plosive, vibrant and affricate
phonemes are balanced in both languages in terms of difficulty, indicating direct relationship with dysarthria.
There are regularly four primary points of articulation: labial stops, coronal stops, alveopalatal affricates
, and dorsal stops.
These results support the attribution of the stereotype label to the affricate
realization of /t/ and /d/ preceded by palatal glide: the profile of speakers that is more associated with the variant includes being male, less educated and older.
The description of affricate
alternation can be illustrated by excerpts from the dictionary by Nirvi: NSG otsa 'end': GSG otsan : PSg otsa 'end' (IMS 367); NSG metsa 'forest': GSG metsan : GPL metsin 'forest' (IMS 307).
Another sound that is still controversial in Ndebele is the voiced alveolar affricate
[dz], in some Ndebele words such as iziwidzi 'sweets' it is replaced by /j/ to be iziwiji, (Hadebe, 2006:178).
Based on data display appear both in the form of a schematic diagram, shows the same number of consonant phonemes that are 19 phonemes, but still have differences in phonemic, ie affricate
[[MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]] which appears in all ISP variants, but not in MP.
Since stops and affricates
are labelled in the database as pairs of semi-phonemes that consist of occlusions and explosions in the case of stops and of occlusions and frictions in the case of affricates
, the total number of different consonants is therefore 36.
Conversely the first C of tn- consonantal clusters word medially in Hindko can be astop fricative affricate
or nasal but third C at the right edge is always a liquid or a flap.
Semantic, phonetic and syntactic contrast between two parts of the lyric, perceivable through the presence of fricative and affricate
consonants, inversion, and "wild" designations in the first stanza, and the lack of them in the second.
While aspiration is clearly contrastive for voiceless plosives in the bilabial, dental and velar places of articulation, as well as for the voiceless palatal affricates
, the picture is less clear for other plosive or affricate
passing to the northern affricate
and these are restricted to a few words: zaschuna (V: 23); zo (I: 10) (V: 11) (VI: 14, 40); zoe (V: 39, 45, 48).
The voiceless affricate
and voiceless stops demonstrate such kind of tendency.
These spellings strongly suggest that the Hebrew letter yud had turned into the voiced affricate
pronounced like the letter j in English.