Dorrit Cohn has described two ways narrators proclaim their subjective opinions: ideas can be verbalized gnomically, "by way of generalizing judgmental sentences that are grammatically set apart from the narrative language by being cast in the present tense," or adjectively
, "by judgmental phrases that infiltrate descriptive and narrative language and that often apply to the other characters of the fictional world" (308).
From on in, on + butan 'without, outside of' (itself an earlier comb, of be 'by, near' + utan properly locative of ut 'out', used adjectively
Although this verbal category is morphological in nature it exercises various syntactic functions and hence it is discussed here: (7) (a) when a present or past participle functions as a noun modifier it is adjectively
marked, its grammatical categories are: gender, number, case and even degree (participium attributivum), for example milites pugnantes 'fighting soldiers'.