Other investigators have constructed an abstainers
cluster before inductive analysis (source: Rouillier P et al.
Further complicating the putative association between drinkers and abstainers
is the issue that abstainers
include never drinkers and former drinkers, and these two groups are very different.
According to the study's findings, 29% were abstainers
, 46% were non-binge drinkers, 13% were occasional binge drinkers and 12% were frequent binge drinkers, Francis Marion had a lower percent of binge drinkers and more abstainers
Researchers found personality differences between those individuals considered abstainers
and all others (users) for alcohol and other substances (Mayer, 1988; Masse & Tremblay, 1997; Jackson, 1997).
Employees generally fall into one of three common categories during times of organizational change and transition -- Achievers, Adopters and Abstainers
This study also emphasizes that moderation is key--both abstainers
and heavy drinkers in this study were more likely to suffer mental decline, with the heavy drinkers showing the poorest performance on mental tests.
Moreover, the Urasoe municipal election committee mistakenly counted some 200 voters as abstainers
, delaying the announcement of the final voter turnout until shortly after 12:30 a.
Four or more cups per day reduced the incidence of severe atherosclerosis to less than one-third than seen in tea abstainers
(n = 200) were defined as students who reported no use of marijuana or alcohol through the 10th grade.
Women who consumed any alcohol had less than half the chance of becoming pregnant during a given menstrual cycle than abstainers
Research shows ironically that both abstainers
and heavy drinkers are more likely to have heavy drinking children.
included Western-oriented countries that Canada often links with, such as Japan, Australia, Austria, Israel, and Finland.
The medical research, discussed in more detail below, indicates that both abusive drinkers and abstainers
are at significantly greater risk for heart attack than moderate drinkers.
Two interesting characteristics related to alcoholism that are unique to Native Americans are these: (a) although most drinkers range in age from 25 to 44, after age 40 there is a sharp decline in drinking, and (b) many former drinkers voluntarily join the ranks of the abstainers
who constitute as much as 60 percent of this population.
The program works because it is for everyone - not just high-risk drinkers, but abstainers
and moderate drinkers alike.