village in Northern Thailand, there is a contest for supremacy of authoritative knowledge between traditional and modern obstetrical systems.
20) I am grateful to William Lee for his generous assistance in providing translations of the YouTube comments written in White Hmong
and for these observations about the clips in general.
The main clans from Vietnam included the White Hmong, Blue Hmong and Black Hmong, and Flower Hmong" (Barr 2005: 32).
In Southeast Asia, the color or style of clothes might indicate an individual's sub-group, such as White Hmong, Black Hmong or Armband Hmong, but not her clan.
When he arrived in France, after a while he felt the urge (provoked by his neeb spirits) to resume shamanizing and asked a White Hmong
shaman, the only one shaman in the vicinity, to call back his spirit helpers.
His main books have been Sovereignty and Rebellion: the White Hmong
of Northern Thailand (Oxford University Press, 1989), The Hmong of China: Context, Agency and the Imaginary (Brill, 2001), and The Impossibility of Self: An Essay on the Hmong Diaspora (Lit Verlag, 2010.
And in the footnotes I have also added some comments and indicated equivalent words in RPA, the romanised script normally used for Mong Leng and White Hmong, where it was not clear.
In my English translation I have been guided by the Chinese translation and in most cases I have been able to recognise what White Hmong word it is which is spelt.
1978 Traditional Marriage Among the White Hmong of Thailand and Laos (mimeographed) Chiang Mai: Hmong Center.
1978 New Year festival among the White Hmong of Thailand (in French) Bangkok: Don Bosco Press 55 White Hmong Love Songs (in French), Bangkok: Don Bosco Press.
We conducted the interviews in Hmong or English, as the participant preferred, as we both speak English and White Hmong and one of us understands Green Hmong.
Consent forms and HIPPA forms were translated from English into White Hmong, and back translated into English.
We presume that it is not the case that the White Hmong
chose to identify themselves as both White and Hmong, although that would provide a tidy explanation for this.
28) See the discussion in Chapter 9: "'Real History' and the Theory of Ethnic Categories" in Nicholas Tapp, Sovereignty and Rebellion: The White Hmong
of Northern Thailand (Singapore: Oxford University Press, 1989), pp.
Binney (1968: 549), for example, states that with the White Hmong
he studied in Thailand, "the social system is largely dependent on the continuation of the economic system.