venoms may contain well over 100 protein components .
is a mystery, but it is possible that nocturnal predation on this species in pitfall traps by large colubrids or viperids
, or perhaps other mammals explains the low numbers of this cricetid mouse.
A comparison between pre and posthibernation morphometry, hematology and blood chemistry in viperid
Surgical technique for isolation of the main venom gland of viperid
, crotalid and elapid snakes.
The Namaqua dwarf adder is a small (mean adult total length 214 mm; mean adult mass 14 g) viperid
snake that occurs along the west coast of southern Africa (Fig.
melanoleucus) and the viperid
snake, Agkistrodon piscivorus (Johnson et al.
Evidence of prey luring exists for numerous species of viperid
, clapid, and boid snakes as well as six colubrids.
The venom will contain 90% dry weight protein, composing enzymes, polypeptides, free amino acids 80-90%, viperid
and 25-70% elapid.
Three-finger toxins, non-enzymatic proteins of 60-74 amino acid residues, were thought to be present only in elapid venoms, but their presence was recently demonstrated in colubrid and viperid
venoms as well (Doley et al.
snake Azemiops: Its comparative cephalic anatomy and phylogenetic position in relation to Viperinae and Crotalinae.
Relationship of Temperature to Activity Patterns-- Detailed studies on thermal ecology of snakes have dealt almost entirely with diurnal snakes such as Thamnophis (Scott, 1978; Peterson, 1982; Stevenson, 1983; Gregory, 1990), Coluber, and Masticophis (Hammerson, 1979), or are based on studies of colubrid or viperid
taxa (Jacob and Painter, 1980; Sanders and Jacob, 1981; Graves and Duvall, 1987; Goode and Duvall, 1989).