Many commentators have also failed to notice that Vatican I did not define what infallibility is; rather the council described how infallibility is to be exercised.
Thus, instead of providing a theological definition of what infallibility is, Vatican I provided a list of canonical criteria for the dual purpose of both ensuring and verifying that a pope has duly exercised infallibility.
22) Although the prelates at Vatican I acknowledged that infallibility had been previously exercised by various popes, the council did not provide a list of such teachings; accordingly, theologians differ about which papal teachings prior to Vatican
There are similar subtleties in the teaching of Vatican I.
Vatican I described the result of a papal exercise of infallibility in canonical terms: "definitions of the Roman pontiff are of themselves, and not by the consent of the church, irreformable"  (see above, n.
In sum, the argument is that Vatican I
did not rule out any communion ecclesiology, but simply failed to address that element of the tradition.
In an atmosphere of violent revolutions, Vatican I
and Leo XIII's Aeterni Patris (1879) mandating Thomism as the Church's approved system of philosophy and theology ironically led an ultramontane hierarchy to push the Church's theology into erroneous interpretations of Aquinas and the very sort of narrow rationalism that Benedict decries.
Although no mention is made of them, this new standard history of Vatican I offers itself to the inner-Catholic and ecumenical dialogues concerning the Petrine ministry as a conscientious scholarly determination of the historical reality of the Council and its immediate, theologically relevant aftermath.
For theologians looking for a sound historical basis for serious interpretations of the dogmatic constitutions of Vatican I, Schatz is now a necessary resource.
Newman looked for a subsequent council to "trim the boat," which Vatican I held on a risky tack.
If the Vatican is sitting on a secret stash of cash, there is little evidence of it in the way of institutional functions.
The Vatican is not an organism, it is a bureaucracy.
No myth about the Vatican is more enduring or widespread than the belief that it is an ultrasecret closed world, impermeable to the outsider.
It's a classic version of what most people believe the Vatican is like.
Our deal will include the Vatican's promise that the Vatican will aid me in my effort to acquire insurance companies," wrote Frankel/Rosse, by allowing a Vatican official "to certify to the authorities, if necessary, that the Vatican is
the source of the funds.