This is an important edition in reconstructing the history of Vaisnavism
in relation to its ambient culture.
In Indian Vaisnavism
, moreover, the Buddha/Sugata is traditionally viewed as the penultimate incarnation or 'descent' (avatara) of Visnu from heaven to earth in human form to re-establish 'true Dharma' (saddharma) and protect worshippers from 'heretics'.
asserts that it is the divine touch that initiates in the devotee the yearning for God, the craving for the Ultimate", writes Bishop Philoxenos.
What makes his claim more authentic is the fact that Orissa during the medieval period had transformed itself into a cradle of unparalleled type of religious syncretism where there existed a happy amalgamation of such divergent sects like Saivism, Vaisnavism
, Saktism and also Buddhism.
In short, no case can be made against Bengal Vaisnavism
on the grounds that its basis is aesthetics rather than rational metaphysics, and one would have to judge it by standards other than those of a probably unduly rationalised "original" austere Krsna religion.
The author has challengingly defined his task ahead as a 'cultural responsibility'--a responsibility to situate Sridhara together with his commentaries on BG, VP and Bhp with remarkable comprehensiveness within the ambit of a dignified synthesis/syncretism of Saktism, Saivism, Sankhya dualism, Vedantic monism and Vaisnavism
9) Julia Shaw, 'Naga sculptures in Sanchi's archaeological landscape: Buddhism, Vaisnavism
, and local agricultural cults in central India, first century BCE to fifth century CE', Artibus Asiae, 64, 1 (2004): fig.
Tantra is seen as the esoteric undercurrent of yogic practices forming the experiential basis of multiple theological systems, primarily Tantrik Buddhism, Jainism, Saivism and Vaisnavism
It is well known that Baladeva was a trained Madhva sannyasl who later converted to Gaudiya Vaisnavism
after meeting Radhadamodara, a Gaudiya scholar, in Puri (Okita 2011: 208).
As in the West, medieval Indian religion and philosophy experienced conflicts and interaction/assimilation of different thoughts and esoteric practices of which Saktism Hindu and Buddhist Tantricism, Chaitanya Vaisnavism
and Vaisnava Sahajiya cult stand prominent.
In the various cults that later became Vaisnavism
, Balarama was portrayed as a form of the minor deity Sesa, the divine snake born on earth as a human being.
In a recent article that attempts to address all of these issues, Nadine Dalsheimer and Pierre-Yves Manguin argue that the popularity of Visnu in ancient Southeast Asia -- and particularly in Preangkorian Khmer civilisation (generally defined as pre-ninth-century CE) -- was due to the role played by Vaisnavism
in Southeast Asian trading networks.
Recently, however, there has been a growing body of scholarship on other forms of Indian thought and spirituality, in particular on Sri Vaisnavism
Tandra Pattnaik, Sunya Purusa: Bauddha Vaisnavism
of Orissa, New Delhi: D.
Plpa, originally a Rajasthani king and a goddess worshiper, was converted to the higher-order Vaisnavism
with the consent of the goddess herself, who admitted that she was only a lower-order deity.