Neal examines Upper Paleolithic
flutes that are 42,000 to 43,000 years old as the earliest musical instruments--or at least sound producers--found in the archaeological record.
The Earliest Instrument: Ritual Power and Fertility Magic of the Flute in Upper Paleolithic
Culture" is an extraordinary study and a critically essential addition to academic library Paleolithic Studies reference collections and supplemental studies reading lists.
Although the faunal remains have not yet been studied, field observations suggest that red deer and ibex --as always in the Upper Paleolithic
layers of this site--were the main game animals, although fish remains --notably salmon vertebrae--are also present.
There is still little evidence on the life way of the first modern human populations and of the Early Upper Paleolithic
cultures (40,000 B.
The Upper Paleolithic
is also when modern humans really started flourishing.
The study of Upper Paleolithic
art, which had initially focused on the Franco-Cantabrian area, was soon extended to other parts of the Iberian Peninsula.
And while no Early Paleo-Indian sites have been found in northeast Asia (the culture apparently having developed in North America), Paleo-Indian stone tool technology has a Eurasian Upper Paleolithic
look to it.
He argues that they must have come in just that order, each resting on the one before, in the course of the Upper Paleolithic
Revolution some thirty to sixty thousand years ago.
Guest lecturer is Dr Chantal Conneller, lecturer in upper Paleolithic
and Mesolithic archaeology at the University of Manchester, who is also joint director of the excavation.
They question current theories on the Neanderthals, offering a 'language-free' explanation for differences between the European Middle and Upper Paleolithic
records, based on human energetic needs.
Archaeologists have for too long perpetuated the idea that there are distinct primitive and modern periods, with a revolution occurring between the Middle and Upper Paleolithic
periods (roughly 40,000 years ago).
During this interval, the modern-aspect humans developed a distinctive Upper Paleolithic
variant technology termed the Aurignacian.
The Lower Paleolithic [earlier] hunters were skilled hunters of large game animals, as were Upper Paleolithic
[later] humans at this site," says Mary C.
Innovation and technological knowledge in the upper paleolithic
of northern Eurasia.
She delineates global processes through a skillful application of the concepts of convergence and divergence, most notably in her discussions of the Upper Paleolithic
creative explosion and the emergence of the African-Eurasian world-system.