An ambitious mission to lower two sub-seafloor observatories into the Hikurangi subduction zone
east of the North Island to study New Zealands largest fault starts this weekend.
Other subduction zones
are found across the globe - and experts say they are responsible for the world's most powerful earthquakes.
Earthquakes take place once the energy accumulated due to a "slip deficit" - created as a result of the movement of tectonic plates being blocked along subduction zones
for hundreds, or even thousands, of years - exceeds a certain threshold.
2006: Resonant Slow Fault Slip in Subduction Zones
Forced by Climatic Load Stress.
These high concentrations of dissolved carbon species, previously unknown at great depth in Earth, suggest they are helping to ferry large amounts of carbon from the subduction zone
into the overlying mantle wedge where they are likely to alter the mantle and affect the cycling of elements back into Earth's atmosphere.
Summary: Muscat: Recent research has revealed that the Makran Subduction Zone
(MSZ) is more prone to .
Paul Segall, a geophysicist at Stanford, uses computers to simulate what happens when factors like fluid pressure, heat transport and friction change at subduction zones
This observation suggests the existence of a tear fault in the subduction zone
preceding a slab break-off.
Chile - As the only segment of the Chile-Peru Subduction Zone
not to have ruptured within the last 100 years, the north Chile segment is now considered to be a region at high risk from an earthquake similar in size to the 2010 event.
Topics include Precambrian tectonics and the supercontinent cycle, implications of plate tectonics for environmental change, large igneous provinces, rifted continental margins, ocean ridges, continental transforms, subduction zones
, and many organic examples.
This year's program focused on subduction zones
, where Earth's tectonic plates bend back down toward the planet's interior, usually creating volcanoes in the process.
The relative motions between adjacent plates give rise to earthquakes along the plate boundaries that include spreading oceanic ridges, converging subduction zones
, collisional continental plate boundaries, and transform faults along which they shear past each other (Bird, 2003; Turcotte and Schubert, 2002; Cediel et al.
The effect of subduction zones
on crustal evolution is preserved in the tectonic evolution of the plate above the subduction zone
(upperplate) where there is a relatively predictable zonation (Fig.
That's because the area that borders the ocean, dubbed the "Ring of Fire," contains most of Earth's subduction zones
, where the plates move vertically, pose the most severe threat for tsunamis.