form was seen that night in distant parts of the enormous town slumbering monstrously on a carpet of mud under a veil of raw mist.
East African robusts have been found only near rivers and lakes, but no evidence suggests they preferred wetter habitats over drier habitats, Vrba observes.
afarensis and robust hominids with identifiable bony grooves, she says.
This cerebral radiator -- represented in fossils by grooves in cranial bones and openings for emissary veins -- expanded as brain size increased in gracile australopithecines and the Homo lineage, while small-brained Hadar hominids and robust australopithecines lacked the cooling network of veins.
Furthermore, the South African remains suggest the robusts were nearly as proficient at two-legged walking as are modern humans and spent much of their time on the ground.
Paranthropus is the term he prefers for the robusts.
East African robusts are known as Austrolopithecus boisei; the South African variety is called A.
She has examined 20 early hominid juvenile jaws, including both East African robusts and South African "gracile' australopithecines such as A.
We need to study more fossil skulls of the robusts with CT scanning,' she says.
Conroy and Vannier have shown that Taung resembled the robust australopithecines more closely than it resembled modern humans in its sequence of dental development,' says Tobias.
Other researchers, however, say thatWT 17000 supports their previous contentions that the Hadar fossils represent two different species: a slender, "gracile" type exemplified by Lucy, which was an early member of the Homo line, and a robust type.
All robust forms, whether they evolved on one or more lines, eventually becme extinct.
afarensis to the progressively larger robust forms, robustus and boisei.