sup] In our study, the Ki-67 nuclear positive cells were mainly located in the nephrogenic zone, which was just under the renal capsule
, and it was in accordance with the wide distribution of progenitor cells in the area.
This problem may be due to ureteric obstruction from a blood clot in patients with gross hematuria or to stretching of the renal capsule
by a subcapsular hematoma.
The tumor was limited to the kidney parenchyma, without the involvement of the renal capsule
or the perihilar fat (stage pT1bNx).
Moreover the pain caused by a stone in the ureter is attributed to the acute distention of the renal capsule
caused by the obstruction combined with the increased peristalsis of the smooth muscle layer of the ureter.
3) MFHs arising from the renal parenchyma or renal capsule
represent less than 6% of renal sarcomas.
This condition was first observed by Bonet in 1700, and was first described clinically as 'spontaneous renal capsule
apoplexy' by Wunderlich in 1856 [1, 2].
A biopsy of the cortex was taken with the needle tip placed against the renal capsule
before firing the biopsy instrument.
Invasion of the renal capsule
and adipose tissue was seen with negative surgical border.
The needle is observed for swinging as the patient breathes, to confirm needle placement at the renal capsule
(Terrill, 2002, Richard, 2001) as the kidney is anchored to surrounding structures and abdominal wall, and therefore moves with the diaphram (Tortora & Grabowski, 2003).
The severity of the pain depends on the amount of dilation of the renal capsule
or stretching of the collecting system.
The lymphatics of renal capsule
and renal parenchyma drains into the renal sinus lymphatics.
In the kidney, leiomyomas may arise from the renal capsule
, pelvis, or vascular smooth muscle.
Small satellite lesion in the renal capsule
(black arrow), separated from the edge of the main tumour mass (white arrow) (20x).
Selective angio embolization in 3 cases) Table 5: Complications among 500 s-PCNL procedures Number Rate % Intraoperative Minor renal parenchymal Injury 30 6% Renal Capsule
Rupture 7 1.
The inflammatory process had extended beyond the renal capsule
, and xanthogranulomatous tissue was present at the margin of surgical resection.