They observed that the presence of a higher steel reinforcement may not allow the complete yielding of the primary reinforcement and it results in a brittle failure due to the crushing of the compressed regions.
The effect of the primary reinforcement in the SFRC corbels was the most sensitive and a slight increase of primary reinforcement up to 1.
Secondary reinforcement and rate of primary reinforcement
Although the delay to primary reinforcement clearly is important, can we assume that a delayed reinforcer is always ineffective?
Delayed Primary Reinforcement Effects in Concurrent Schedules
The first is that the stimuli are merely discriminative for a given rate of primary reinforcement
and without any conditioned reinforcing strength (Baum, 1973, p.
The theory states that the ability of a stimulus to act as a conditioned reinforcer can be determined by comparing the reduction in time to primary reinforcement
correlated with the onset of that stimulus, relative to the average delay to primary reinforcement
correlated with the prior stimulus situation (Fantino, 1969b, 1977; Squires & Fantino 1971).
For example, Delay Reduction Theory (Fantino, Preston, & Dunn, 1993) maintains that the strength of a stimulus as a conditioned reinforcer depends on the reduction in time to primary reinforcement
that is signaled by onset of the stimulus.
Vollmer, Rangdahl, Roane, Marcus, 1997) indicated that NCR is both easy to implement in the applied setting and has a low probability of negative side effects, and (3) the NCR procedure provided the opportunity for the frequent pairing of staff approach with potential primary reinforcement
This was in keeping with the data and theoretical position of Egger and Miller (1962, 1963), which held that a stimulus must be a reliable and nonredundant predictor of primary reinforcement
to become an effective secondary reinforcer.
According to delay reduction theory (DRT), the conditioned reinforcing strength of a stimulus may be predicted by calculating the reduction in the duration of time to primary reinforcement
signaled by that stimulus (Fantino, 1969; 1981; Squires & Fantino, 1971).
My colleagues and I have hypothesized that for some children, problem behaviors like aggression, self-injury, and property destruction occur not because they directly produce primary reinforcement
, but rather because these destructive behaviors increase the probability of reinforcement for mands (Fisher et al.