For example, in 1610 Henry Spelman, a young Englishman who lived among the Powhatans for a time, began to sense that the deteriorating relationship between his countrymen and the Powhatans had placed him in a dangerous position, and he feared for his life.
According to Smith's account, the Englishmen asked the captive "how many worlds he did know, he replied, he knew no more but that which was under the sky that covered him, which were the Powhatans, with the Monacans, and the Massawomecks, that were higher up in the mountains.
The hour-long documentary on "The Making of The New World" accompanying the DVD release of the film, for example, chronicles the shared work of a research team of historians, archeologists, linguists, anthropologists, and members of Virginia tribes to represent as faithfully as possible Powhatan and English agriculture, architecture, language, and material culture.
2) While the film includes episodes needed to offer a historically accurate account of the early colonization of Tsenacomoco--not least in depictions of the beginnings of the Virginia tobacco industry and consequent displacement of the Powhatan or in frequent juxtapositions between Captain Smith and Captain Newport's lofty political ideals and the far baser actions of the colonists--ultimately, its emphasis falls elsewhere.
For example, both Hadfield and Appelbaum discuss the Picts and their similarity and/or difference to the Powhatans but make no reference to the other's article.
Jess Edwards provides an excellent overview of the legal and cultural conceptions of land in England and how it influenced, and was itself affected by, English dominion over Powhatan landholdings in colonial Virginia.
Allen takes us back to Werowocomoco, the ritual center and the royal court of the Powhatan Confederacy, on the fateful night of January 8, 1608, when the Powhatans had John Smith's head on the chopping block--but Allen's is a very different story from Smith's self-aggrandizing adventure narrative, from which he emerges as the irresistible and all-powerful white male.
Underscoring the hybridity of her project, Allen employs Algonquin concepts and words and attempts to base her interpretations of Pocahontas on "a Powhatan worldview.
He argues that the terms massacre and uprising do not reflect the Powhatans' perspective on either of these episodes because the Powhatans wanted to punish the English for a breach of the boundaries defined by Powhatans rather than exterminate the colonists.
Gleach convincingly demonstrates the great degree to which Powhatan, his daughter, and Powhatan Indians as a whole are unfamiliar because their cultural perspectives have been overlooked or misunderstood.
For instance, Powhatan
and Monacan societies were described in terms that evoke characteristics of a chiefdom but the elements of social inequality seem absent.
It's beautiful, of course, but as I said, the Algonquins, including the Powhatans, didn't dress like Plains Indians.
Even the explanations of the Powhatan world were English/American academic historiography and ethnography, which as a general rule have little bearing on Native people's views of their own world.
Smith and subsequent English leaders would fail to reciprocate, violence would ensue, and in 1622 the Powhatans
would strike a blow to set things right.
The major annual ritual for the Powhatans
was the mid-summer first-fruits celebration.