However, Vidua and Anomalospiza bear about the same weight of osteological distinction from the other subfamilies of Ploceidae as they do from Estrildidae.
Sushkin (1927) listed skeletal differences between the Estrildidae (excluding Viduinae) and Ploceidae (Bubalornitinae, Passerinae, and Ploceinae).
The PCA figures show a broad overlap between Estrildidae and Ploceidae (four subfamilies, with Anomalospiza in Viduinae) in Fig.
In five more tabulated characters there was some difference in a few species between Estrildidae and Ploceidae, but there were large areas of overlap: size of the retroarticular process of the mandible, shape of the caudal basibranchial, presence and size of a manubriumsternum bridge, ratio of tarsometatarsus length to skull length, and ratio of humerus length to femur length.
Cramp & Perrins (1994) and Fry & Keith (2004) separated Passeridae as a separate family from Ploceidae.
Whether the subfamily Viduinae should be transferred from Ploceidae to Estrildidae or segregated as a separate family is not clarified by osteology.
Ploceidae, Passerinae: Plocepasser mahali, 1 KS70632