Such reform was the aim of the celebrated motu proprio, issued within three months of his accession to the papacy, by Pope Pius X
In this endeavor, Pius X
showed himself to be singularly ruthless.
used the term to describe what he perceived was a unified attack on the Catholic Church by its own members; "the criticism We are concerned with is an agnostic, immanentist, and evolutionist criticism.
As Pius X
remarked: "To put it plainly, to be a priest and to be vowed to toil--these are one and the same thing;' As bishops, Oliver Plunkett and Jean Baptiste Lamy took their responsibilities to perform Confirmations seriously: upon his return to Ireland, Plunkett confirmed 10,000 people of all ages, and on just one trip to Mexico, Lamy confirmed 35,000.
Had this proposed arrangement been in place during the 20th century, Pius X
would have served seven years instead of 11, Benedict XV's term of office would have remained unchanged, Pius XI and Pius XII would have each ruled for a decade, and Paul VI would have reigned for nine years, retiring in 1972.
The conclave that led to the election of Pius X
(1903-14) is described in rich detail.
Not only do we learn, for example, the identities of the Congregations' consultors, their theological and ideological leanings, and their judgments on Loisy; we also learn whose forceful voices ultimately carried the argument with Pius X
by playing into his anxieties about the dangers facing the Church, and so whose voices and arguments led genetically to Lamentabili sane exitu (1907), Pascendi domenici gregis (1907), and to Sacrorus antistitum (1910), the motu proprio imposing the Oath against Modernism.
, a splinter group of Catholics who reject most of Vatican II.
It is just 100 years since Pope Pius X
issued his thundering encyclical, Pascendi Dominici Gregis ("Feeding the Lord's Flock"), which condemned the movement he labeled "Modernism," calling it "the synthesis of all heresies.
has wedded ancient Hispanic values and faith with a Vatican II vision of a modern parish, infusing each with new meaning.
That leaves only three popes who were declared saints in the last 900 years: Celestine V (who reigned for five months in 1294 and then abdicated), Pius V (1560-1572), and Pius X
, but we cannot recommend your attendance at such a Mass.
If Pius IX and John XXIII advance, they will join only two other pope-saints in the last 300 years: Pius V (who reigned 1566-1572) and Pius X
The first eight chapters of this book are devoted to the four popes studied: Gregory XVI, Pius IX, Leo XIII, and Pius X
is schismatic and therefore "no longer in full communion," a term he questions.