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Gymnosperms with extra-ovular capture and germination are known only from a small number of conifers, such as Araucariaceae, Saxegothea (Podocarpaceae), and some Pinaceae, e.
In the Pinaceae, eight species, all in the genus Pinus, are represented in southeast Alabama.
The resins identified in sherds from Faverdale and Piercebridge are diterpenoid resins, from which the Pinaceae family (pine, cedar, fir) may be distinguished by the presence of components deriving from abietane and pimarane skeletons (Zavarin & Snajberk 1980; Evershed et al.
Leaves needle-like; leaf arrangement alternate or in fascicles (bundles); seed cones woody and large (more than 3 cm long) with overlapping (imbricate) scales Pinaceae
The results revealed the presence of a diterpenoid material from the Pinaceae family: although it was not possible to establish the genus, it was probably Pinus caribaea.
Three families belong to the Division Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae, Poaceae and Solanaceae, and two to the Division Pinophyta: Pinaceae and Araucariacae.
also named Taiwan white pine or Taiwan Short-leaf Pine, belongs to gymnosperms and is one of Pinaceae sub.
1994) suggest that diterpenoid conifer resins from the Pinaceae family may provide a reliable carbon source for dating.
The only gymnosperm family was the Pinaceae (five species) and the only monocot family was the Poaceae (five species).
The well-studied biological groups are Pinaceae, with 26 studies, in particular for pines (Pinus 19 studies), firs (Abies four studies) and Picea (three studies), and the genus Agave, with 20 studies.
The primary species known as southern yellow pine include Pinus palustris, Pinus echinata, Pinus taeda and Pinus elliottii of the Family Pinaceae.
Other alternatives to the use of birch-bark tar in Neolithic and later contexts in northern Europe include a bituminous substance on an Early Bronze Age knife from Xanten-Wardt, Germany (Koller & Baumer 1993), a Pinaceae tar, possibly from Pinus spp.
This feature is best seen in the Pinaceae in which the ovuliferous scale becomes the most important component of the mature seed cone (e.