This story chronicles the dynamic inter-relationship between Pima farmers, the national economy, and liberal land and resource policies and concludes that had the Pima farmers not been deprived of their access to the waters of the Gila River and its tributaries, they may well have continued their highly successful adaptation to a market economy and might have gained parity with local farmers and remained part of the national economy.
In many ways the Pima story of settlement, accommodation, and betrayal vis-a-vis the United States is a common one for any reader acquainted with the history of American perfidy with respect to its Indian allies.
The Arizona lab's newest pima genetic lines are better able to fend off attack by pink bollworm and silverleaf white-fly--two major pests of cotton in the American West.
But the scientists found that certain pima plants, if properly irrigated, tend to leave their stomates open longer, releasing moisture that then cools the leaves.
Aside from poets and language specialists such as Danny Lewis and Ofelia Zepeda, both of whom are Tohono O'odham (formerly called Papago), along with the memoirist James McCarthy, the O'odham presence in the world of letters is modest, to say the least, virtually nonexistent in the case of the Pimas (Akimel O'odham).
The first group of Pimas that I went to lived near Mesa, in a section which is highly developed and all under irrigation.
population, the Strong Heart Study indicates that the Pima and Maricopa Indians have a lower-than-average incidence of heart disease.
By contrast, Pima men and women average approximately 7 cigarettes per day, "You can see that's a really striking difference in terms of cigarettes consumed," Welty told those attending the conference.
Anza's California Expeditions: Font's Complete Diary, 4:43; Ezell, "The Hispanic Acculturation of the Gila River Pimas," 39, 104; House Executive Document 41, 83.
Kino, Kino's Historical Memoir, 1:186, 206; Ezell, "The Hispanic Acculturation of the Gila River Pimas," 17.
Some scientists have suggested that Pimas might help strave off Type II diabetes by returning to their traditional low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet.
But other new findings suggest that weight control alone may not shield adult Pimas from Type II diabetes.
Though the two regimens contained comparable numbers of calories, the modern diet--nicknamed the "Circle-K diet" for its similarity to foods found in convenience stores--caused problems for Caucasians and Pimas alike.
Jenkins of the University of Toronto in Ontario reported that a cereal containing the grain-like seeds of an herb known as psyllium or plantago -- long cultivated by the Pimas -- may reduce risk factors among the diabetes-prone and help diabetics manage the disease.
Despite repeated weight-loss programs, the average weight of the Pima
Indians is roughly 30 percent heavier than that of the U.