Phalangium opilio were collected in the field no more than = d prior to the trial dates.
Males were on the ground significantly more than the females, and large nymphs and males remained on the ground in the 03:00 h when the 749 ALLARD & YEARGAN--ACTIVITY PATTERNS OF PHALANGIUM OPILIO females and large nymphs returned to the plants (Fig.
Phalangium opilio became active with the onset of nightfall (21:00 h).
Physiological and ecological aspects of the cosmopolitan opilionid, Phalangium opilio.
Predation of Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) eggs and first instars by Phalangium opilio (Opiliones: Phalangiidae).
The first one contains species with region-wide distribution (indicated by the spread of lines that connect the sampling sites where a species has been sampled): Pyza bosnica (Roewer 1919), Paranemastoma radewi (Roewer 1926), Paranemastoma aurigerum ryla (Roewer 1951), Phalangium opilio Linnaeus 1758, Rilaena cf.
serbica and Phalangium opilio seem to prefer middle-mountain open habitats (where a well defined peak may be observed); a similar pattern is also displayed by Paranemastoma aurigerum ryla, but the peak is not so prominent.
This group contains the relatively well known, ecologically widely adapted, photophilous, and thermophilous species such as Phalangium opilio and Opilio saxatilis (Pfeifer 1956; Kolosvary 1965, 1966a,b; Stare ga 1976; Weiss & Sarbu 1977; Hiebsch 1978; Czechowski et al.