We examined the effects of both leaf and floral herbivory (bud damage) and determined the relative contribution of direct and indirect effects of damage on female fitness through changes in floral traits for Oenothera macrocarpa (Onagraceae).
We investigated the reproductive consequences of herbivore damage on female (and not male) fitness in the hawk moth pollinated species Oenothera macrocarpa (Onagraceae) by manipulating both the level of leaf damage and the amount of pollen to the plant.
Oenothera macrocarpa (Onagraceae) is a native, perennial herb in Missouri Ozark glade communities.
Oenothera macrocarpa grows primarily on the south-facing slope of this glade.
Marquis 1992, Meyer and Root 1993, Cunningham 1995, Juenger and Bergelson 1997), herbivores reduced female fitness in Oenothera macrocarpa.