Standing back, then, notions of "law" were hardly the same, not even among Observant religious whose rules obviously differed one from another.
Friar Martin Luther's first and only trip to Rome turned on disputes concerning stricter statutes within his Observant Augustinian Friars.
And Observants felt even more str ongly than did the conventuals, the tension between learning and the "humility and simplicity" thought to be at the heart of the Franciscan mission.
The noted shift away from education among the Observants in Italy was at least in part related to the number of mature postulants they accepted.
The first phase of Dominican reform gave way, however, to a very distinct second phase, and the first generation of observants gave way to a second generation, no less zealous in their ideals, but more pragmatic and flexible in their strategies to attain their goals.
Catherine's was successfully reformed thirty years later by Johannes Nider, the observants again faced resistance from the Nuremberg town council; Theodore von Kern, "Die Reformation des Katharinenklosters zu Nurnberg im Jahre 1428," Jahrbuch des historischen Vereins im Mittelfranken 31 (1863): 1-20, esp.
Cisneros's attempts were aimed at transforming the Conventuals (who had deviated from the rule of Francis) into Observants
(who had preserved the rule of their founder), which, as Rummel demonstrates, met with "considerable resistance.
410, 8 April 1520, records the difficulties that arose when the convent was divided between Observants and the traditional Conventuals: "Et prima La Signoria sentava in choro; hora ch'e fato questa partison di monache Conventual et oevante, sta preparato a sentar la Signoria di fuora in chiesia, cossa nova et ne ho voluro far nota.
In May 1509 die Senate allotted 200 ducats to observant convents to pray for victory on behalf of the city; Primhak, 50.
One of the key issues of contention between the main or Conventual branch of the Franciscan order and the Observants regarded the possession of property.
In the Veneto, the success of the Observants may be linked to the Venetian aristocracy's particularly receptive attitude to ecclesiastical reform movements in general.
36) Mary Anne Case presents an intriguing argument that in the United States Catholics and observant
Jews recognize the difference between religious and civil marriage better than Protestants, and that this explains the particular virulence of the Evangelical Protestant opposition to legalizing same-sex civil marriage.
However, a separate stand on the matter of rebaptism should be noticed--namely, that of the Observant Franciscans who always demanded only the profession of faith from the converts.
A similar state existed among the Dominicans (166 monasteries with 2,092 friars), along with the Observant Franciscans (117 cloisters with 2,359 friars), called Bernardines in Poland.
The representation for March reveals that the recipients of the breviary were Observant
Poor Clares, for the painted nuns wear the coarse black veils legislated by the reformers in 1460.