Against the Nestorians
, the council proclaimed that the Christ has two natures, one wholly human, the other wholly divine.
By far the greatest missionaries were the so-called Nestorians
, who referred to themselves simply as the Church of the East.
By then, missionary activity was over for Constantinople and the Nestorians
The later Nestorians
formed a separate Church which would have a long strong influence in Persia, Syria, and Iraq.
But the most important contribution in this area came from groups of scholarly Christian heretics, especially the Nestorians
, who were responsible for transmitting Greek medical, mathematical, and natural philosophical knowledge into Islam, from which it reentered Europe in the Middle Ages.
It first came via Asia Minor and Persia in 635, brought by Nestorian
Passages in the manuscripts which reflected Nestorian
theological language or contained the names of Nestorian
theologians were revised or left blank.
always dyophysite, while Nestorius was not, and Monophysites ever what the name given them by their opponents implied?
The 24 chapters are divided into four main sections: the Ecumenical Patriarchate (10 essays); the Russian Church (5); Eastern Christianities covering Melkites, Nestorians
, Jacobites, as well as Armenians, Copts, Ethiopians, and Syriac Christians (6); and the Modern World (3).
In the fine bibliography mention is not made of an important two-volume work by Joseph Masters, The Nestorians
and Their Rituals in 1842-1844 (London, 1852).
sees the history of Christian missions in Asia from their beginnings to 1900 as composed of a series of five advances and three recessions: the first advance--the Syrian tradition (50-225); the second advance--the Nestorian
missions along the Old Silk Road (225-900); the third advance--the reappearance of Nestorians
and the coming of Catholics (1000-1350); the fourth advance--the return of Catholics and the arrival of Protestants (1500-1750); the fifth advance--the "Great Century" of Protestant missions and Catholic recovery (1800-1900).
in Mesopotamia and Persia, Monophysite Jacobites mostly in Syria, and Melkites (Chalcedonian orthodox) throughout the conquered Byzantine provinces.
In her study on the Nestorian
Church and its interactions with Muslims, Metselaar aims to portray the influences these two faith communities had on each other.
The importance of Cyril's thought rests m his Christology, which opposes the Nestorian
God-Logos separation by insisting on the unity of what he preferred to call Logos and Flesh ('Sarx'), using the term 'Hypostasis', denoting Being or Substance.
Raguin's explorations are carried further by Stephen Eskildsen ("Christology and Soteriology in the Chinese Nestorian
Texts"), Gunner Mikkelsen ("'Quickly Guide Me to the Peace of the Pure Land': Christology and Buddhist Terminology in the Chinese Manichaean Hymnscroll"), and Hans-Joachim Klimkeit ("Jesus' Entry into Parinirvana: Manichaean Identity in Buddhist Central Asia").