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It is, moreover, inconsistent with local usage, for Keo people themselves, like the Nage to the north, call the volcano 'Ebu Lobo', as do the Endenese, in whose language the name is rendered as 'Ambu Rombo'.
Keo epu, Nage ebu weo, both meaning 'earthquake, tremor').
This characterization applies even to those villagers who live within a short distance of the sea, and even in spite of the rather misleading Nage designation of the entire population of the Keo region as ata ma'u (or kapo ta'a ma'u), 'coastal people'.
At present, the same divide is expressed by both Keo and Nage with the phrases au rala and wawo rala (cf.
What is more, the administrative usage stems in no small measure from local resistance to colonial rule, a process which, to a degree, served to set off Keo from Nage, or at any rate from more westerly (and apparently less recalcitrant) parts of Nage in which the colonial division of that name was centred.
Other information derives from later reports by retiring commissioners ('residents') and more minor officials, as well as from my own field enquiries in Nage and Keo.
At the same time, he is described as being related to leaders in interior parts of Tana Rea, an area in the far western part of the Ende sub-division, thus directly east of the colonial districts of Nage and Keo.
9) Another reason for maintaining Keo as a separate district was that 'Oga Ngole,(10) the Nage leader appointed as native administrator (Dutch 'zelfbestuurder') or rajah of the Nage district, lacked traditional authority in the Keo area.
Hens (see Hens 1916), that efforts should be made to combine Keo and Nage into a single administrative district to be named 'Nage' and headed by the Nage native administrator, 'Oga Ngole.
For reasons yet to be fully determined, several villages in the extreme western part of the Keo region, including settlements on or near the south coast, were incorporated as part of the Nage district and remained as such throughout the colonial period.
In 1928, a second attempt to unite Keo with Nage also failed.
It was also in the early 1930s that Keo was finally joined to Nage.
The true extent of cultural similarity between Keo and Nage obviously cannot be established without thorough ethnographic description and analysis.
Although probably influenced in some measure by their shared colonial history, the view of Keo and Nage as an ethnic unity is nowadays commonly asserted by Nage and Keo people themselves.