are vertically transmitted and ultimately colonize the
Three-way interactions among ectomycorrhizal mutualists
, scale insects, and resistant and susceptible pinyon pines.
Numerous factors capable of affecting plant performance and distribution contribute to this microenvironmental heterogeneity: canopy structure and dynamics, intraspecific density and distance effects, interspecific plant resource and interference competition, litter layer, soil conditions, topography, and animal mutualists
The species that respond to nut crops include not only a few animals that are potential mutualists
Relationship between a mutualist
and a parasite of the laurel fig, Ficus microcarpa.
The IgA antibodies also provide a substrate that allows our mutualist
bacteria to form the biofilms that line and protect the colon and appendix.
IN WALES today, we are it seems, all mutualists
Proximate factors leading to rarity include intrinsic fitness (limited propagules, slow growth), requirement for mutualists
(mycorrhizal symbionts, dispersal agents, pollinators), plant-soil interactions (inadequate soil components), plant-plant interactions (competition), meteorological factors (wind, precipitation, temperature), disturbance (changes in hydrology or nutrients, animal and human effects), and climate change (increased temperatures, changes in snowpack and moisture).
The Rothbardians and Mutualists
have some disagreements over land ownership and theories of value, but their intellectual cross-pollination has brought the groups closer philosophically.
appear to reward good behavior, an approach James Bever of Indiana University in Bloomington calls preferential allocation.
On which note, hats off to 'Skid' Marks and the noble mutualists
for fabricating a modest 85% uptick in 2009 profits.
If the calculated number is negative, then the soil organisms were behaving like parasites; if it is positive, they were behaving like mutualists
Heath KD, Tiffin P (2007) Context dependence in the coevolution of plant and rhizobial mutualists
Controphic species may also act as mutualists
by serving as alternative prey and reduce the predation intensity on mosquitoes.
Much less studied are the interactions between Ailanthus and its mutualists
, such as pollinators.