Balancing anti-herbivore benefits and anti-pollinator costs of defensive mutualists
are vertically transmitted and ultimately colonize the
Symbiotic mutualism situates mutualist
creatures in relations of interdependence with others, and so the needs of each constitute calls to others.
Relationship between a mutualist
and a parasite of the laurel fig, Ficus microcarpa.
The IgA antibodies also provide a substrate that allows our mutualist
bacteria to form the biofilms that line and protect the colon and appendix.
Deric Shannon writes in a more principled, though not per se sectarian, vein about mutualists
such as Kevin Carson, with whom he, as an anarcho-communist, can join forces only up to a certain point.
In the Red Sea, endemic two-band anemonefish Amphiprion bicinctus are obligate mutualists
with three species of giant sea anemone hosts: Entacmaea quadricolor, Heteractis crispa and Heteractis magnifica (12-14).
Mammals as seed-dispersal mutualists
in North America.
Lifestyle Features of Bacterial Mutualists
The type of mutualism that has evolved between flying foxes and their Myrtaceous and Proteaceous mutualists
involves the partners as 'free-living' mutualists
with 'sustained, intimate interactions between individuals of the respective species'.
Vectors, viscin and Viscaceae: mistletoes as parasites, mutualists
, and resources.
The Rothbardians and Mutualists
have some disagreements over land ownership and theories of value, but their intellectual cross-pollination has brought the groups closer philosophically.
appear to reward good behavior, an approach James Bever of Indiana University in Bloomington calls preferential allocation.
On which note, hats off to 'Skid' Marks and the noble mutualists
for fabricating a modest 85% uptick in 2009 profits.
It is hypothesized that the reproductive fitness of plants increases if floral traits are simultaneously attractive for mutualists
and defensive against antagonists (Brown 2002, Irwin et al.