The frequently observed plucking behavior of Mithrax on live Oculina suggests that this coral may produce similar rewards to attract and retain mutualists
, just as numerous terrestrial plants produce food rewards for their ant mutualists
Complex associations with vectors, parasites, and mutualists
are also likely to exhibit indirect impacts of hybridization.
In three pine mutualists
investigated to date - white-bark (Linhart and Tomback 1985, Furnier et al.
Fungal endophytes: Common host plant symbionts but uncommon mutualists
Reef corals become less diverse and ultimately less abundant in waters with more available nutrients, while bioeroders (such as Lithophaga date mussels) become more active and primary production shifts progressively from animals having endozoic algal mutualists
to benthic seaweeds to phytoplankton.
such as larvae of the pitcher plant midge, Metriocnemus knabi (Coquillett), pitcher plant mosquito, Wyeomyia smithii (Coquillett) and flesh fly, Blaesoxipha fletcheri (Aldrich), are normally associated with Sarracenia purpurea as members of a phytotelmatous community (Schnell, 2002).
constructor are both obligate mutualists
with Cecropia spp.
petiolata may be due largely to allelopathy toward native plants or their mycorrhizal mutualists
(Vaughn and Berhow, 1999; Roberts and Anderson, 2001; Prati and Bossdorf, 2004; Stinson et al.
In order to better understand how abiotic conditions that negatively affected plant performance affected the community of mutualists
associated with the plant's roots, we compared the ectomycorrhizal fungal community found on pinyon pines (Pinus edulis Engelm) growing in two extreme environments.
In associations characterized by low specificity between mutualists
, a condition that may be more common than specialized mutualisms (Howe 1984), a decreased abundance of one mutualist
is often accompanied by an increased abundance of an alternative, acceptable mutualist
Antiherbivore defense was clearly an attribute of plants housing Pheidole bicornis ant colonies even though these ants do not display the suite of "aggressive" characters expected in ant mutualists
that serve a protective function (e.
One interpretation of their presence in domatia is that they are simply parasites of a mutualistic interaction and that domatium "design" cannot exclude tiny larviform or flat mites and still allow access to potential mutualists
Also, most studies assume that pollinators function exclusively as plant mutualists
though such is not always the case.
The ecological context of the interactions between facultative mutualists
in the yucca moth family point to at least one specific factor that may make selection for active pollination relatively uncommon (Thompson and Pellmyr 1992, Pellmyr et al.
, and pathogens should be taken into account when considering competition between plants, but the resulting effect may be difficult to predict (Clay 1990).