With increased production of honeydew resulting in increased visits by tending ants (Bronstein 1994; Itiokia & Inoue 1996), honeydew is the base on which ant-hemipteran mutualism
is built (Wiss 2006; Styrsky & Eubanks 2007; Detrain et al.
foetidissima by collared peccary (Pecari tajacu), speculate on their potential to disperse seeds, and question previous assumptions regarding the role extinct megafauna played in this mutualism
some trees have evolved a work-around to the ant-bug mutualism
, and feed the ants directly.
Invasive plant suppresses the growth of native tree seedlings by disrupting belowground mutualisms
In such cases, habitat fragmentation or loss of native pollinators might compound the threat of climate change to mutualisms
," Tucker Gilman, lead author of the paper, said.
You wouldn't exist without mutualisms
, and you would have little to eat without the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.
This well-known mutualism
involves orchids, called perfume orchids, which produce species-specific blends of floral fragrances, and male orchid bees, which collect and use these fragrance compounds during their courtship (Dodson et al.
We should expect the symbiosis to be a mutualism
, and mycorrhizal plants (grown in living soil) should be larger than non- mycorrhizal plants (grown in baked soil).
Parasitism itself is no more stable an endpoint than mutualism
, however--perhaps less so in the case of corporations and human society, whose current relationship could lead to the destruction of one or both symbionts.
Disturbance may disrupt mutualisms
between plants and seed dispersers in a variety of ways including changes in the community of dispersers present.
Some of these complex associations appear to be 3-way mutualisms
, with plant, caterpillar, and ant benefiting in complex and varying ways.
Molecular approaches are making the cellular and genetic basis for bacterial mutualisms
with marine animals accessible to detailed study for the first time.
Understanding how interspecific mutualisms
(cooperation between different species) can be stable over many generations is a key unresolved subject within evolutionary biology.
The topics include empirical patterns of predation and communities, food webs, mutualisms
, indirect effects, habitat selection, spatial dynamics, causes and consequences of diversity, succession, and applied community ecology.
Yet a lot of mutualisms
seem to be doing just fine, thank you.