It has been suggested that age-related sarcopenia is due to: I) elevated basal-fasted rates of muscle protein
breakdown, II) a reduction in basal muscle protein
synthesis (MPS), or III) a combination of the two factors.
3) Branched chain amino acids promote muscle protein
Leucine helps regulate blood-sugar levels, aids in the repair of muscle and bone tissue, and prevents the breakdown of muscle protein
after trauma or stress.
Efficacy of protein on muscle protein
synthesis is determined by a specific ratio of amino acids.
2010) and is based on the premise that an upper limit of amino acid delivery must be achieved before muscle can no longer use amino acids as substrate for muscle protein
synthesis, thereby resulting in the amino acids being diverted toward catabolic processes instead.
Coingestion of carbohydrate and protein hydrolysate stimulates muscle protein
synthesis during exercise in young men, with no further increase during subsequent overnight recovery.
The primary findings were that "Sustamine altered, immediately post exercise the phosphorylation state of signaling proteins in a manner that theoretically should reduce muscle protein
breakdown, while whey protein accelerated the phosphorylation of proteins in the mTOR-dependent signaling pathway thereby theoretically activating muscle protein
Although there was no clear effect of the pattern of protein intake in our study, we observed a definitive effect of a higher amount of protein intake in mixed meals on whole body net protein balance and muscle protein
synthesis," the authors wrote.
He suggests shifting more protein to breakfast and lunch: For example, for breakfast, replace carbohydrate with an egg, glass of milk, yogurt, or some nuts; do the same for lunch, and lessen the amount of protein consumed at dinner, to optimally synthesize muscle protein
While a moderate amount of protein (about 30 grams/meal) can increase muscle protein
synthesis, there may be a ceiling effect.
After exercise, the same whey group saw a 122 percent greater muscle protein
synthesis compared to the casein group and 31 percent greater than the soy group.
Encarna Aguayo and colleagues in the Department of Food Engineering at Spain's Polytechnic University of Cartagena cite past research on watermelon juice's antioxidant properties and its potential to increase muscle protein
and enhance athletic performance, but scientists had yet to explore the effectiveness of watermelon juice drinks enriched in L-citrulline.
high-intensity exercise, how resistance exercise utilizes fat as an energy source, and how fat oxidation is elevated in the postworkout period; dietary fat intake strategies to enhance performance, including fat loading and the use of fatty acid-containing supplements; carbohydrate metabolism, with discussion of skeletal muscle glycogen depletion, lactate formation, and glycolysis; dietary carbohydrate strategies for performance enhancement, including daily intake recommendations, low-carbohydrate diets, and methods for rapidly synthesizing muscle glycogen; protein metabolism, types of high and low-quality protein, sources, intake and frequency, and the role of leucine in muscle protein
synthesis; nutrient timing; energy balance; enhancing body composition; and hydration and performance.
where they presented the first-ever isolated muscle protein
from the fish.
Changes in human muscle protein
synthesis after resistance exercise.