Catalytic carbons are not able to remove (react with) monochloramine
for an indefinite period of time.
removal by activated carbon is achieved by the following equations (1):
Effect of monochloramine
disinfection of municipal drinking water on risk of nosocomial Legionnaires' disease.
So, some utilities have switched to monochloramine
, a compound of chlorine, nitrogen, and hydrogen.
Thus, the effects of hypochlorous acid versus the hypochlorite anion could be distinguished for free chlorine; similarly, the dichloramine impacts (low pH) could be assessed relative to the monochloramine
(high pH) (ref.
The measurement capabilities of the analyzer include single or dual-measurement of pH, ORP, ISE (Ion-Selective Electrodes), resistivity/conductivity, percent concentration, total chlorine, free chlorine, monochloramine
, dissolved oxygen, gaseous oxygen, dissolved ozone, turbidity, pulse flow, and temperature.
To complement the exposure assessment, we evaluated the mutagenicity of the pool waters in the Salmonella mutagenicity assay and screened for DBPs, comprehensively identifying most DBPs detected and quantifying a few targeted DBPs and disinfectant species (THMs, chlorine, monochloramine
, dichloramine, and trichloramine) in the pool waters and in the air phase above the water (THMs and trichloramine).
Effects of ozone, chlorine dioxide, chlorine and monochloramine
on Cryptosporidium parvum viability.
Mucosal ulcerogenic action of monochloramine
in rat stomachs: effects of polaprezinc and sucralfate.
WaterPOINT 870 profiles pH, ORP, Conductivity, Free Chlorine, Total Chlorine, Monochloramine
, Ammonia, Total Dissolved Solids, Total Alkalinity, Calcium Hardness, Langelier Saturation Index, Calcium, Carbon Dioxide and Temperature.
A 1979 change in the Safe Drinking Water Act has encouraged many municipalities to switch their disinfectant from free chlorine to monochloramine
A single value for free chlorine, monochloramine
, dichloramine, and trichloramine was obtained for each participant as measured by N, N-diethyl-p-phenylenediamine (DPD) procedure with a portable photometer (DINKO Instruments, Inc.
WaterPOINT 870 is the first fully integrated field handheld system that provides an entire panel of key water quality tests, including measurements for pH, ORP, conductivity, free chlorine, total chlorine, monochloramine
, ammonia, total dissolved solids, carbonate alkalinity, calcium hardness, Langelier saturation index, calcium, carbon dioxide, and temperature.
We conducted a 2-year, prospective, environmental study to evaluate whether converting from chlorine to monochloramine
for water disinfection would decrease Legionella colonization of hot water systems.
Evidence that monochloramine
disinfectant could lead to elevated Pb levels in drinking water.