This development has, in its time, reacted on the extension of industry; and in proportion as industry, commerce, navigation, railways extended, in the same proportion the bourgeoisie developed, increased its capital, and pushed into the background every class handed down from the Middle Ages.
The bourgeoisie has disclosed how it came to pass that the brutal display of vigour in the Middle Ages, which Reactionists so much admire, found its fitting complement in the most slothful indolence.
They direct their attacks not against the bourgeois conditions of production, but against the instruments of production themselves; they destroy imported wares that compete with their labour, they smash to pieces machinery, they set factories ablaze, they seek to restore by force the vanished status of the workman of the Middle Ages.
And that union, to attain which the burghers of the Middle Ages, with their miserable highways, required centuries, the modern proletarians, thanks to railways, achieve in a few years.
The men of the Middle Ages often wrote, as we do, in direct terms and of simple things, but when they wished to rise above the commonplace they turned with a frequency which to-day appears astonishing to the devices of abstract personification and veiled meanings.
Again, almost as prominent as the Seven Sins was the figure of Fortune with her revolving wheel, a goddess whom the violent vicissitudes and tragedies of life led the men of the Middle Ages, in spite of their Christianity, to bring over from classical literature and virtually to accept as a real divinity, with almost absolute control in human affairs.
But it must be observed that religious writings were far more important as literature during the Middle Ages than in more recent times, and the separation between religious and secular less distinct than at present.
I know a woodchopper, of middle age
, who takes a French paper, not for news as he says, for he is above that, but to "keep himself in practice," he being a Canadian by birth; and when I ask him what he considers the best thing he can do in this world, he says, beside this, to keep up and add to his English.
Wine is the only youth granted to middle age
," I continued,--"in vino juventus, one might say; and may you, my dear young friend, long remain so proudly independent of that great Elixir--though I confess that I have met no few young men under thirty who have been excellent critics of the wine-list.
Appendix I is based on sixty-seven responses to a Middle Ages
survey, giving the ages, countries, employment, education, and periods chosen, while Appendix II gives a very useful list of data and dates relating to religion, literature, and art, from 1534 to 1906.
Part 1, "The Middle Ages
and Shakespeare,' includes: Bruce R.
Written by scholars who have published extensively on related issues, including Elizabeth Saxon, Michael Driscoll, Miri Rubin, and Kristen Van Ausdall, this fine resource offers 13 chapters describing in detail the uses, theology, liturgical practice, popular stories, understanding, and art historical evidence for the Eucharist in the Middle Ages
Bring the Middle Ages
to life with Great Medieval Projects You Can Build Yourself (ISBN: 978-0-9792268-0-9), a child-friendly, informational text about day-to-day life in Medieval Europe
This was several hundred years ago and it is why the period is now known as the Middle Ages
, because everyone died when they reached middle age
MYSTERIES OF THE MIDDLE AGES
By Thomas Cahill (Doubleday, 2006)