Quinn Rossander, from the Delaware Mental Health Consumer Coalition, later wrote that from that point on: "Electric shock treatment quickly replaced insulin and Metrazol
as the favourite form of shock treatment, and became the most effective method of controlling troublesome asylum inmates.
The Howard building came to represent a century of incurable degeneracies, as well as a century of violent "therapies" that took place in the building: arsenic, insulin, and metrazol
"therapies," electroconvulsive shock, and lobotomies were all performed on site in the first half of the twentieth century (Fisher, 2000, pp.
who threw potato salad at CCNY lecturers on Dadaism and subsequently presented themselves on the granite steps of the madhouse with shaven heads and harlequin speech of suicide, demanding instantaneous lobotomy, and who were given instead the concrete void of insulin Metrazol
electricity hydrotherapy psychotherapy occupational therapy pingpong and amnesia, (I.
Meduna reported improvement in 50% of patients who received metrazol
at seizure-producing doses.
Insulin coma, metrazol
coma, electroconvulsive therapy, as well as frontal lobotomy were each promoted in their time as major "innovations.