of New Jersey) describes how late in the 17th century, the Manchu Qing dynasty
observed that its remote neighbor Tibet was in danger of subjugation by the Zunghar Mongols, who might then be able to exert even more pressure on China's northern and northwestern border than before.
Led by Sun Yat-sen, who later became the first president of Chinese Republic in 1911, a major objective of the Tongmeng Hui was to overthrow the Manchu Qing dynasty
and to establish a republic of Han Chinese (Gasster 1969: 65-151).
The strength of historical analyses of shamanic phenomena is particularly illustrated in chapters dealing with precolonial India, imperial Rome and the Manchu Qing Dynasty of China.
The later Manchu Qing dynasty (17th-20th centuries) drew on institutionalized shamanic ceremonies operating in a Buddhist religious context, with imperially-sponsored 'revitalization' in period of tension and decline.
With the exception of the now independent country of Mongolia (the "Outer Mongolia" of Qing times), the present borders of China are in the main those of the Manchu Qing dynasty