OCEV, Ocozocoautla de Espinosa virus; AMAV, Amapari virus strain BeAn 70563; CHPV, Chapare virus, 200001071; CPXV, Cupixi virus, BeAn 119303; GTOV, Guanarito virus, INH-95551; JUNV, Junin virus, XJ13; MACV, Machupo virus
, Carvallo; SABV, Sabia virus, SPH 114202; TCRV, Tacaribe virus, TRVL 11573.
However, it was not until 1963 that the etiologic agent, Machupo virus
, was isolated from the spleen of a patient who died from this disease (1).
Louis encephalitis virus, Rocio virus, Ilheus virus, West Nile virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, eastern equine encephalitis virus, Mayaro virus, Trocara virus, Oropouche virus, Caraparu virus, Murtucu virus, Guaroa virus, hantavirus, Machupo virus
, and Tacaribe virus; after the cardiovirus isolation, EMCV antibody also was used.
Eight persons (5 evaluated for exposure to Lassa virus, 2 for Machupo virus
, and 1 for Junin virus) received immune plasma (prepared from recovered patients in virus-endemic areas); 1 patient potentially exposed to Lassa virus also received intravenous ribavirin.
The South American species include Guanarito virus (GTOV), Junin virus (JUNV), Machupo virus
(MACV), and Sabia virus (SABV).
The Machupo virus
reservoir host, Callomys callosus, has been shown by genetic analysis to be paraphyletic.
The term "viral hemorrhagic fever" characterizes a severe multisystem syndrome associated with fever, shock, and bleeding diathesis caused by infection with any of several RNA viruses, including Ebola virus and Marburg virus (MARV) (family Filoviridae); Lassa virus (LASV) and the South American hemorrhagic fever viruses Guanarito virus, Junin virus, Machupo virus
, and Sabifi virus (Arenaviridae); Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), and hantaviruses (Bunyaviridae); and Kyasanur Forest disease virus (KFDV), Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus, yellow fever virus (YFV), and dengue viruses (Flaviviridae) (1,2).