OCEV, Ocozocoautla de Espinosa virus; AMAV, Amapari virus strain BeAn 70563; CHPV, Chapare virus, 200001071; CPXV, Cupixi virus, BeAn 119303; GTOV, Guanarito virus, INH-95551; JUNV, Junin virus, XJ13; MACV, Machupo virus
, Carvallo; SABV, Sabia virus, SPH 114202; TCRV, Tacaribe virus, TRVL 11573.
There are five pathogens of humans: four cause severe hemorrhagic fever (Lassa virus in West Africa, Junin virus in the Argentine pampas, Machupo virus
in Bolivia, and Guanarito virus in Venezuela) and the fifth, lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM) virus, causes milder infections.
Laboratory studies performed on serum and tissue specimens from decedents confirmed the diagnosis of BHF by isolation of Machupo virus
and detection of viral antigen in all five patients for whom specimens were available, the survivor developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to Machupo virus
However, it was not until 1963 that the etiologic agent, Machupo virus
, was isolated from the spleen of a patient who died from this disease (1).
Louis encephalitis virus, Rocio virus, Ilheus virus, West Nile virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, eastern equine encephalitis virus, Mayaro virus, Trocara virus, Oropouche virus, Caraparu virus, Murtucu virus, Guaroa virus, hantavirus, Machupo virus
, and Tacaribe virus; after the cardiovirus isolation, EMCV antibody also was used.
Eight persons (5 evaluated for exposure to Lassa virus, 2 for Machupo virus
, and 1 for Junin virus) received immune plasma (prepared from recovered patients in virus-endemic areas); 1 patient potentially exposed to Lassa virus also received intravenous ribavirin.
The South American species include Guanarito virus (GTOV), Junin virus (JUNV), Machupo virus
(MACV), and Sabia virus (SABV).
The Machupo virus
reservoir host, Callomys callosus, has been shown by genetic analysis to be paraphyletic.
The term "viral hemorrhagic fever" characterizes a severe multisystem syndrome associated with fever, shock, and bleeding diathesis caused by infection with any of several RNA viruses, including Ebola virus and Marburg virus (MARV) (family Filoviridae); Lassa virus (LASV) and the South American hemorrhagic fever viruses Guanarito virus, Junin virus, Machupo virus
, and Sabifi virus (Arenaviridae); Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), and hantaviruses (Bunyaviridae); and Kyasanur Forest disease virus (KFDV), Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus, yellow fever virus (YFV), and dengue viruses (Flaviviridae) (1,2).
botulinum 94-86 Sabia virus 94-88 Machupo virus
95-16 Unknown 95-40 Dengue type 4 virus 95-55 Ebola virus 95-61 Francisella tularensis 98-23 Rift Valley fever virus 98-28 C.