Androecial development and the problem of monophyly of Loasaceae.
In Loasaceae subfamily Loasoideae a variable number of antesepalous staminodes develop into colored nectar collectors (Hufford, 1990; Smets, 1988a, 1988b; Figs.
In Loasaceae (subfamily Loasoideae) the antesepalous stamens have become differentiated into colored nectar recipients (Figs.
Note: Table made from bar graph Table I Comparison of the barrier effect of the middle Maranon Valley and the Huancabamba Depression, respectively, in relation to the altitudinal distributions of species numbers of Loasaceae Maranon Valley Species found on both sides of the Maranon Valley (ca.
Evidence in Loasaceae indicates that both factors have contributed.
and is similarly found in Loasaceae in North America and Mexico (some groups in Mentzelia L.
This vegetation type is usually free of Loasaceae, even where they are directly adjacent to moister forests with numerous species of Nasa (e.
It is particularly striking that the colonization of dry habitats and concomitant morphological changes (coriaceous leaves, dense indument, underground storage structures) appear to have evolved in various plan t groups independently, both in Loasaceae (xylopodia in Xylopodia, indument in Nasa urentivelutina) and outside Loasaceae (storage roots in Caxamarca and Fuchsia pachyrrhiza P.
In spite of the relative wealth of data there is still unsatisfactory documentation from the southern part of the Department of San Martin in Peru (very few collections) and the Cordillera del Condor in Ecuador (Province of Zamora-Chinchipe, no Loasaceae reported so far).
The high species number in the Amotape-Huancabamba Zone is particularly striking if we consider its area in comparison with the Northern and Central Andes: The total size of Andean habitats suitable for Loasaceae in both the Northern and Central Andes is five to six times as large as in the Amotape-Huancabamba Zone.
Overall similarity between the floras on both sides of the Huancabamba Depression is higher because there are more low-altitude Loasaceae in this area.
Both in the Northern and the Central Andes, the species groups of Loasaceae are usually restricted to one side of the mountains.