Para entender bem o direito natural, Thomasius propos uma norma universal para todas as acoes em conformidade com o jus naturae e o jus gentium: dever-se-ia fazer o que deixasse a vida longa e feliz, evitando-se o que a tornasse infeliz e acelerasse a morte (19).
Como ja se mencionou, suas principais obras versaram sobre jus naturae e o jus divinum, nao tendo realizado um estudo especifico e sistematico sobre o direito civil.
5) The same assumption is even more emphatically present, however, in Emmanuelle Jouannet's proposal for overcoming this conflict: by treating it as endemic in the tradition or 'school' of jus naturae et gentium to which Vattel was heir, which she regards as divided between positivist and naturalist forms (Hugo Grotius and Francisco Suarez versus Samuel Pufendorf and Christian Wolff), and statist and universalist tendencies (Thomas Hobbes and Pufendorf versus Gottfried Leibniz and Wolff).
In light of this, it is quite understandable that Randall Lesaffer should ask why Vattel persists with the language of universal justice at all; and he is surely right in answering that metaphysical and theological doctrines of natural law continued to play a significant normative role in early modern jus naturae et gentium.
For the opposing view--that jus naturae et gentium emerged as a science with philosophical foundations--see Merio Scattola, ' Scientia Iuris and Ius Naturae: The Jurisprudence of the Holy Roman Empire in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries', in A History of the Philosophy of Law in the Civil Law World, 1600-1900, eds Damiano Canale, Paolo Grossi, and Hasso Hofmann (Dordrecht: Springer, 2009), pp.