A decline in rabbinical literary production and the upsurge of composition and printing of works in Judeo-Spanish
targeting the public at large were the beginnings of what would eventually become the breaking of the hold of the rabbis on religious knowledge.
Today, one can still find traditional singers of Judeo-Spanish
songs, but rarely those who still know the old romances and wedding songs.
Monique Balbuena demonstrates how Judeo-Spanish
, seemingly in danger of extinction, is undergoing renewal in Latin America; several entertainers not only perform traditional songs but set new Ladino poems, some with gendered content, to music.
The texts are significant she says, because they have not before been identified as a genre, deciphered, translated or explained; are one of the earliest examples of a large quantity of Judeo-Spanish
within rabbinic law writings; consist of examples of the vernacular, the best evidence available for the spoken language of the period; and cast light on historiography and social and cultural history.
Edouard Roditi in a 1986 article entitled "The Slow Agony of Judeo-Spanish
Literature" wrote that Ladino "seems destined to die out" and in 1994 Tracy Harris published a book entitled Death of a Language: The History of Judeo-Spanish
While it is frequently retold that the Bulgarian government elected not to deport some 50 000 Jews from Bulgaria to German death camps in Poland, what is generally not revealed is that Bulgaria was directly complicit in the murder of some 13 000 other Jews from their lands of Bulgarian Thrace and Macedonia--mostly, Judeo-Spanish
speaking Jews of Greek and Ottoman-Turkish descent.
Ladino is a Judeo-Spanish
culture with roots dating back to the Middle Ages when Jews fled from Spain and the Catholic Church for the Middle East.
THE two other women singers, Mariza (Tuesday, in Hall 1) and Yasmin Levy (Thursday in Hall 2) specialise in the traditional fado music of Portugal and the Ladino hybrid of Judeo-Spanish
The season continues on February 10 with Israeli Yasmin Levy, who combines Ladino, the Judeo-Spanish
music of Spain, with Flamenco.
Refael questions why the works of the Judeo-Spanish
authors, who were inspired by the experiences of the Sephardim, traumatic as they were, were not included in anthologies in Israeli or abroad.
Cancioncillas del jardin del Eden is a collection of 28 bilingual traditional Jewish children's songs in their original languages--Hebrew, Judeo-Spanish
(according to the author not to be confused with Ladino), Yiddish and Arabic--and in a Spanish rendition.
The fourth part deals with Judeo-Spanish
and Aljamiado literature from pre-expulsion Iberia to the formation of a diasporic Spanish koine.
Rabbi Marc Angel's exploration is scholarly, providing a fine survey of the Judeo-Spanish
people of the Ottoman Empire and the influences that led them to stay united under duress.
Katz, a reputed Hispanist with a thorough knowledge of traditional music and a regular visitor of the Iberian Peninsula, is one of the world's major authorities in Judeo-Spanish
Finally, an indication of Maghribi migration to Tiherias can be found in food recipes in Tiherian Judeo-Arabic, which include many Judeo-Spanish