Approximately 160 whole and partial skeletons of extant (= Recent or Holocene) specimens, representing seven species of the family Istiophoridae, were examined and used for comparison with the fossil skull.
Family Istiophoridae sensu Robins and de Sylva 1960
14) described the development of pterygiophores in the anal and dorsal fins of istiophorids, but we are not aware of any published morphological accounts of individual pterygiophores in the adult Istiophoridae.
Some methods used for genetic sampling ofbillfishes (families Istiophoridae and Xiphiidae) require excision of muscle, skin, or fin tissue, and excision requires manual restraint or killing of the animal.
This has not yet been achieved for larval billfishes of the family Istiophoridae from the Atlantic Ocean: sailfish (Istiophorus platypterus), blue marlin (Makaira nigricans), white marlin (Tetrapturus albidus), and longbill spearfish (Tetrapturus pfluegeri).
Anatomical and physiological adaptations to warm the brain and eyes have evolved independently in divergent pelagic fish lineages, including the lamnid sharks (Block and Carey, 1985), billfishes of the Xiphiidae and Istiophoridae (Carey, 1982a; Block, 1983) and some scombrid fishes (Linthicum and Carey, 1972).