The Christians, although not free from internal disputes, were finally united by the marriage of King Ferdinand of Aragon and Queen Isabella of Castile
Part of Thames & Hudson's History Files series, Voyages of Discovery comes with a set of facsimile documents that includes Columbus's 1492 contract with Isabella of Castile
and the map of the Pacific Islands drawn for Cook by his islander navigator, Tupaia.
Criticizing these terms, Ungerer establishes that the history of this trade begins not in the 1630s with the Guinea Company's formal monopoly, and not even in the ]560s with the independent voyages of Hawkins, but with the community of English merchants resident in Andalusia during the decades immediately after the Catholic monarchs, Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile
, completed their "Reconquista" and Columbus set sail for the "New World.
The Sanders book shows how the marriage of Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile
united the major kingdoms of Spain, reinforced the fanatical nationalism of the Reconquista, and strengthened the role of the Spanish Catholic Church in advocating religious orthodoxy and "purity of blood.
However, several lesser known women are chronicled including Isabella of Castile
and her descendents, Catherine of Brandenburg and Katherine Valois, for example.
In "The Gender of Shared Sovereignty: Texts and the Royal Marriage of Isabella and Ferdinand," Elizabeth Lehfeldt discusses the role of Isabella of Castile
as a powerful queen and reflects on her relationship with her husband, Ferdinand of Aragon, as it appears in the chronicles of Fernando del Pulgar, Alfonso de Palencia, Diego de Valera, and Juan de Flores.
By 1492 Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile
had driven the Moors out of Spain and unified the country.
Most of the others from pre-modern times were born leaders, women mostly as tough as old boots and quite able to hold their own in a world shaped by and for men - Cleopatra, Boudicca, Eleanor of Aquitaine, Joan of Arc, Isabella of Castile
, Catherine de Medici and Elizabeth I.
They ranged from Judith to Saints Ursula, Agatha, and Catherine of Alexandria, to Matilda of Canossa and Isabella of Castile
Joanna spoke French and was an accomplished Latin scholar, having received a humanistic education at the court of her mother, Isabella of Castile