At micro level, each firm may be forced to specialize its investments in the narrow field left free by the intellectual monopoly
of other firms (being, in turn, innovative investments an important determinant of a firm's productivity (Crepon et al.
Historically, intellectual monopoly
in pharmaceuticals has varied enormously over time and space.
This is as macroscopic a contradiction of the intellectual monopoly
apologists' argument for patents in general, and for medical patents in particular, as one can possibly imagine.
Today, organizations in dozens of countries, and international organizations as well, issue governance guidelines and codes of best practice, suggesting that we Americans hold no intellectual monopoly
in this field.
The majority of developing countries will need to provide some form of intellectual monopoly
right on food and medicinal biodiversity for the first time.
Since the first debate lies outside my professional competence (although one would not want to concede philosophers the intellectual monopoly
recently preposterously arrogated by Baroness Warnock) what follows will concern itself with the more general issues raised by these other controversies surrounding Peter Singer.
It is in the same vein as their highly acclaimed Against Intellectual Monopoly
Louis, offer their new book Against Intellectual Monopoly
, which makes an extremely powerful case against patents and copyrights.