Historically, intellectual monopoly
in pharmaceuticals has varied enormously over time and space.
But the European experience suggests otherwise, according to an upcoming book, Against Intellectual Monopoly
, by economists Michele Boldrin of the University of Minnesota and David K.
Similarly, today's school system is an intellectual monopoly
in which federal and state education officials, local school boards and the teachers' unions all think they're doing the right thing, yet the evidence is overwhelming that they aren't.
Today, organizations in dozens of countries, and international organizations as well, issue governance guidelines and codes of best practice, suggesting that we Americans hold no intellectual monopoly
in this field.
The majority of developing countries will need to provide some form of intellectual monopoly
right on food and medicinal biodiversity for the first time.