Partially continuing the role started by the IWW
in 1905, the OBU had launched a massive challenge to complacent, relatively conservative craft unionism in 1919.
concerning the fixed freight rates, how much energy consumption should be allowed for IWW
transport to keep it as the most sustainable alternatives;
was the subject of massive repression before and during the War, not least because of its leaders' outspoken anti-war stance.
When the leaders of the IWW
were put on trial for their activities against the First World War, one of them spoke to the court:
was to conduct -- together with long-time Wobbly musician and activist Dakota Sid Clifford -- a seminar on the history of the IWW
(Scarce, 1990: 82).
I shall outline those actual references to the IWW
and describe the importance of the class divisions in Harry Hope's Saloon as well as the history of the IWW
in order to suggest their relevance to the theme of failure in the play, with the history of the Wobblies functioning as a movement parallel to much of the failure in the characters' lives.
The show included a banner: "Hurwitz Cuts Jobs Like He Cuts Trees," and a flotilla of IWW
110-16) Thus, as Rabban says, free speech was a live public issue during the late Nineteenth century, "[t]he general public, officials at various levels of government, and even members of the IWW
expressed a wide range of views," often in terms "more sophisticated analytically, and more sensitive to free speech concerns, than typical judicial decisions of the period.
Frank Cain and some of Verity Burgmann's work on the IWW
fall into this camp.
leader was beaten, castrated, lynched three times and shot.
was much more than what is usually meant by the term "labor union" and was recognized by many observers (Rexroth among them) as the single greatest revolutionary workers' organization in American history.
The first is a bitter and ultimately unsuccessful stoppage, led in 1913 by the IWW
, which demanded union recognition against the Draper Company amidst anti-immigrant racism that segmented male Italian and Armenian workers from earlier Irish and "Yankee" communities, and French Canadian and Maine replacement workers.
For example, the Fund aided IWW
members imprisoned for exercising the constitutionally guaranteed right of free speech, something few Americans would tolerate today.
On one of the days when Jimmy wasn't working or job-hunting, we did the laundry together and then went to the Rand Labor School, where, for a New School term paper on the Wobblies, I went through all the IWW
newspapers since January.
In 1909, as a young labor journalist covering one of the Wobblies' free-speech fights in Spokane, Washington, for the Workingman's Paper, he was jailed for forty-seven days, including a stretch in solitary confinement on a bread-and-water diet, for helping to organize IWW
activities among his fellow prisoners.