Haptoglobin binds free hemoglobin and removes it from the circulation (8), thus preventing iron loss and kidney damage during hemolysis (9).
Haptoglobin also has antioxidant (12), angiogenic (13), and antiinflammatory effects (11,14).
We postulated that functional differences between the haptoglobin phenotypes might be related to the severity and frequency of seizure attacks in patients with epilepsy.
Haptoglobin testing in hemolysis: measurement and interpretation.
APOA4, apolipoprotein A-IV; PON1, Paraoxonase 1; GC, vitamin D-binding protein; A2M, A2M protein; C4, complement C4; HP, haptoglobin.