Developed nations have enough halon 1301 which is used in cargo bay and engine fire--fighting equipment--to last some 25 years, by which time a replacement should be available, explains John O'Sullivan, a member of the UNEP Halons Technical Options Committee and fire representative for the International Air Transport Association in Montreal.
Most developed nations already have plans for halon recycling and banking systems--registries of who has excess halon to sell.
The Montreal Protocol states that such countries will have to freeze halon consumption by January 2002, reducing consumption by 50 percent by January 2005, and totally phasing out halon use by January 2010.
The case study offers eight examples to show developing countries how other countries and organizations have approached halon management.
At such facilities as headquarters offices, halons are being phased out and recycled for use in oil and gas processing sites -- which are far more hazardous.
You really have to look at the function |of the 1301~ and determine whether it's critical in a broad sense," says Cortina of how recycled halons are reused.
Laws phasing out the production of Halon and taxing its use are making the tough job of a security manager even tougher.
This protocol originally froze Halon production at 1986 levels in 1992, called for a 50 percent reduction by 1995, and required a complete phaseout by 2000.
If nations continue to reduce their use of halons as they have in recent years, the gas concentrations could level off and start dropping as early as 1994, say the researchers.
Since 1987, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has measured halon levels in the lower atmosphere by collecting air samples every one to two months in Alaska, Colorado, Hawaii, and American Samoa.
Similarly, beginning in 1991, the tax is imposed on halons, including halons contained in fire extinguishers held for sale.
4682-4T(e)(2) is still 400 pounds, but only ODCs used in the manufacture of rigid foam insulation and halons are taken into account.
2), and halon
are the three agents most commonly found in household and automotive extinguishers.
Scientists are finding evidence that chlorine from CFCs and halons
is actively destroying stratospheric ozone both on the global scale and--most dramatically --at the poles (SN: 9/19/87, p.
This high level of performance is achieved with the Halon
Operating System (H/OS), which is based on the BSD Unix Operating system, recognized as the most secure system on the market.