Catch rates were calculated as the geometric mean number of halfbeaks landed per fishing day (i.
Since 1986, the estimated total number of landed halfbeaks has ranged from 4.
And female halfbeaks were significantly larger than male conspecifics (Fig.
The larger flyingfishes, Cypselurus and Exocoetus, were similar in length to halfbeaks (Fig.
These halfbeaks are either sold fresh (on ice directly from the day's catch), or they are sorted by size, vacuum-packed by number (i.
Combined landings of two halfbeaks species, ballyhoo (Hemiramphus brasiliensis) and balao (H.
This bucket held 100 to 200 halfbeaks, and these fishes were kept on ice and brought back to the laboratory for processing.
Spawning halfbeaks were distributed so widely throughout the fishing grounds that no specific areas were identified for the protection of spawning individuals.
The GSI value is simple and inexpensive to measure, and by including individual halfbeaks for which we had GSI values but no histological data, we more than tripled our sample size with little additional laboratory cost.
During the study period eight fish species were taken that can be described as southern or "Panamic Province" species including California halfbeaks (Hypor-hamphus rosae), bonefish (Albula vulpes), California needlefish (Strongylura exilis), shortfin corvina (Cynoscion parvipinnis), Pacific seahorse (Hippocampus ingens), California butterfly ray (Gymnura marmorata), banded guitarfish (Zapteryx exasperata), and red goatfish (Pseudupeneus grandisquamous).
The numerically dominant, resident fish in the south-central and south bay, the slough anchovy (Anchoa delicatissima), clustered in this group along and California halfbeak (Hyporhamphus rosae), the deepbody anchovy (Anchoa compressa), the California killifish (Fundulus parvipinnis) and arrow goby (Clevelandia ios).
In this paper we describe landings, markets, and fishing methods for halfbeaks in Florida.
Since landings prior to 1986 were only from large foodfish processors, there was great potential to underestimate landings of halfbeaks and other baitfish species (Broadhead, 1951; Reintjes(1); Johnson(3)).
Since 1950, halfbeaks have been landed almost exclusively in southeastern counties of Florida (Fig.
Halfbeaks are frequently the preferred bait for marine anglers seeking billfishes (Istiophoridae), dolphin, Coryphaena hippurus, groupers (Serranidae), and other gamefishes (de Sylva, 1974; Nakamura and Rivas, 1974; Gentle, 1977; Jolly, 1977).