23) Over the centuries, before the European Enlightenment ushered in modernity, strict observance of the halakhah
was the common denominator throughout the Jewish world.
Yet Freehof did so within a halakhic context--he helps us to understand that like Orthodox and Conservative Judaism, Reform, too, struggled with the challenge of applying halakhah
to modern American life.
It was not because gentile law was necessarily valid in itself that Jews had to obey it in relevant areas, but because halakhah
had made it an ethical duty: "Dina demalkhutha dina did not mean that the law of the government was supreme, but quite the contrary.
Under the sway of the First Crusade, at the end of the eleventh century, Halakhah
--as an echo of political events of the times--had determined one way of reacting to the distress of Franco-German Jews, whereas in the middle of the twentieth century, during the onrushing liquidation of the Jews in Poland, Halakhah
prompts us to react in an entirely different manner.
The conferring of the right to debt relief by halakhah
was intended as a means of avoiding the emergence of a permanent indigent class (Sacks 2001; Berman 2009); And in order to prevent exploitation of the needy, charging interest on loans was prohibited.
38) Nearly every generation of scholars of the Common Era (until the nineteenth century) is represented on the page and engages in dialogue and conversation about the possible meanings of the text and of the nature of Judaism and halakhah
This "mystical-historical" position "dramatizes the spiritual significance that halakhah
ascribes to human singularity by revealing that the subjective inclinations of individuals invested their perspective of Torah with intrinsic worth.
As a result, Neeman's office issued a statement Tuesday saying he "did not call for replacing Halakhah
with Israeli laws, but generally stressed the importance of the religious Jew law in the state.
Author of "Zion," Take Heart: Catholic Writers on Hope in our Time (Crossroad, 2007); To Worship God Properly: Tensions between Liturgical Custom and Halakhah
in Judaism (Hebrew Union College Press, 1998)
Thus, Brague insists in his conclusion that Christianity departs from both the Greek and the Jewish conception of man as "being under" law; Christianity is not a law or halakhah
or sharia, but a way, a viaticum, and its central sacrament, the Eucharist, a meal, a nourishment that does not repress the creature from the outside but enables his freedom.
Kosher simply means "fit" or "proper"; kosher meat is meat from an animal that is sanctioned by halakhah
(Jewish law) and subsequently slaughtered according to that same law.
But to emphasize aggadah in preference to halakhah
is, as Bruns has shown, to enforce an unnatural division:
At least we can suppose that if the two deponents had cared to abide strictly by normative standards of Jewishness, they would have refrained from crossing the border into Spain and Portugal, where widespread anti-converso prejudice not only compelled converso returnees to suspend their observance of Halakhah
(Jewish Law), the supposed bedrock of their normative Jewish identity, but also exposed them to the influence of Christianity, not to mention the possibility of persecution, incarceration, ruin, and perhaps even death, as putative "Judaizers," regardless of what they believed or did.
its approach to Halakhah
from the other Judaisms: Reform and
and Citizenship in the Jewish State, 10 JEWISH POE.