steroid hormone

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One possibility is that gender differences in inflammatory and immune responses following alcohol exposure stem from alcohol-induced changes in the production of gonadal steroid hormones, such as estrogen and testosterone.
The effects of alcohol on production of the gonadal steroid hormones are well documented (Van Thiel et al.
Further studies will be required to determine whether the alcohol-induced changes in gonadal steroid hormone production are sufficient to explain the observed gender differences in immune function.
Several animal studies have suggested that gonadal steroid hormones affect brain activity and certain cognitive skills, such as the ability to delay learned responses.