Lucas & Morgan (2008) presented a comprehensive revision of the taxonomy of Rhynchotherium, and re-assigned the two supposed Rhynchotherium species from Honduras-Blickotherium blicki Frick, 1933 and Aybelodon hondurensis Frick, 1933--to Gomphotherium.
Well-documented Guatemalan proboscidean records are of Gomphotherium and Cuvieronius, and it is likely that the Guatemalan records of Gomphotherium are of the same age as the Honduran records from the Gracias Formation (early Hemphillian).
Gomphotherium fossils in the Gracias Formation are numerous, well dated as early Hemphillian, and provide what we regard as the oldest reliably-dated proboscidean records in Central America.
El Salvador has an extensive fossil record of proboscideans assigned to Gomphotherium, Cuvieronius and Mammuthus.
Miocene records of Gomphotherium are from San Gerardo de Limoncito and Santa Rita (see Appendix).
We divide the history of Central American proboscideans into three immigrations: (1) arrival of Gomphotherium during the Late Miocene (early Hemphillian); (2) arrival of Cuvieronius during the Pliocene (?
The initial immigration of proboscideans into Central America apparently occurred during the Late Miocene (early Hemphillian), well documented and calibrated by the extensive record of Gomphotherium in the Gracias Formation of Honduras, and at the top of the Curre Formation in Costa Rica, the southernmost record of the genus.
The oldest North American records of Cuvieronius are late Blancan, and the origin of the genus from Gomphotherium (or Rhynchotherium?
Gomphotherium arrived in Central America during the Late Miocene, Cuvieronius passed through during the Pliocene, Mammuthus arrived during the Early Pleistocene and Mammut arrived during the Late Pleistocene.
5 Ma) deposit, then it could be argued that the late Hemphillian (~7 Ma) appearance of Gomphotherium in Central America postdates an earlier immigration of gomphotheres into South America.
This tooth clearly belongs to Gomphotherium (Lucas et al.
We concur and consider this a likely Hemphillian record of Gomphotherium hondurensis (cf.
However, revision of the genus excludes these species, which are regarded as derived specimens of Gomphotherium (Lucas & Morgan, 2008).
Corinto: A series of exposures of alluvial sediments between ignimbrite units in the Rio Torola Valley (Municipality of Corinto) yielded a Hemphillian mammal assemblage including "Rhynchotherium blicki" (Cisneros, 2008), which we assign to Gomphotherium hondurensis (cf.