I cannot think that, if and when Hilarius managed to get his work performed, he would still have been a goliard
The international background of goliardic songs and paraliturgical compositions also warns us of the futility of trying to pronounce Latin according to habits of a particular time and place, be it Fleury, Dublin, or Trier; or the Beauvais in the mid-twelfth century: the Latin of the goliards
knew no national boundaries and Ralph, an Englishman, was a pupil of Abelard, Breton born of Poitevin stock.
Ziolkowski even points to the emergence of the Goliards
in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, poets "who were affiliated not with the old monasteries but rather with courts, cathedral schools, rising universities, and urban centers" (232).
He has been actively involved in writing and poetry workshops for twenty years, and his writing has appeared in North American Review, Arizona Quarterly, the Ambrosian, North American Mentor and Mentor Anthologies, Trace, The Goliards
, Fine Arts Discovery, WeightWatchers magazine, Journal of the Upper Mississippi, and Mississippi Valley Writing, among others.
Hunting and military signals, fanfares at tournaments and feasts were certainly part of court life, where people could also listen to the music of the itinerant musicians known as joculatores, histriones, spielmans, jongleurs, goliards
and so on.
Villon jette son froc aux orties, perd ses droits universitaires et devient, comme les Goliards
de jadis, un mercier ambulant, un organisateur de spectacles de la rue et, en fin de compte, un Coquillard.
Furthermore, any analysis of the roundel's seventeen decimas and final quatrain rapidly reveals that there is not a single reference to any identifiable aspect of India and that the composition abounds in topoi of the most general and banal kind with which social types had been lampooned and lambasted from at least the time of the Goliards
Far from being an aberration, the goliards
were the driving force of Latin rhythmic poetry, sacred and profane.
The contents of the manuscript are attributed to goliards
, the wandering scholars and students of western Europe during the 10th to the 13th centuries who were known for their songs and poems in praise of revelry.