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Increased global trade of live fish increases the risk that gnathostomes and other fish-borne parasites will be introduced into regions along with their introduced hosts.
Furthermore, the analysis demonstrated that all of these early members of the modern gnathostomes are clearly separated from what now appear to be the most primitive vertebrates with jaws: a collection of armored fishes called placoderms.
For example, humans are included in the following nested clades (using the informal names): eukaryotes, animals, deuterostomes, vertebrates, gnathostomes, tetrapods, amniotes, mammals, eutherians, primates, monkeys, apes, and great apes (see Dawkins, 2004 for more information on the ancestry of humans).
After some gnathostomes emerged from the sea to dwell on land, the gill arches that did not form the jaw developed to form the tongue, the thyroid cartilage, the cricoid cartilage, and the structures of the pharynx and hypopharynx.
Whatever their dental details, the Ordovician sharks apparently shared the ancient oceans with true gnathostomes.
His major research area is foodborne zoonotic parasites, including echinostomes, heterophyids, and gnathostomes.