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Arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) were found in 11 plant species (34%) of Anemiaceae, Gleicheniaceae, Ophioglossaceae, Pteridaceae, Selaginellaceae, Thelypteridaceae, and Woodsiaceae.
Arbuscular mycorrhizae with arbuscules, which are the structural and functional criterion of the symbiosis, were found in 11 species (34%) from the families Anemiaceae, Gleicheniaceae, Ophioglossaceae, Pteridaceae, Selaginellaceae, Thelypteridaceae, and Woodsiaceae.
Presl t 25-75 AMF Gleicheniaceae Sticherus brevitomentosus B.
Both Bower (1923-1928) and Copeland (1947) recognized the Osmundaceae, Schizaeaceae, Hymenophyllaceae, Gleicheniaceae, Matoniaceae, and possibly Cyatheaceae as relatively primitive ("basal") filicaleans and the Marsileaceae and Salviniaceae as distinct, distantly related families of heterosporous ferns.
The initiation and early development of fern leaf primordia has been described for several species, including Hymenophyllaceae (Hebant-Mauri, 1973, 1984, 1990; Hagemann, 1988), Dicksonia (Hebant-Mauri, 1975), Ceratopteris (Hebant-Mauri, 1977), Stromatopteris (Hebant-Mauri & Veillon, 1989), Salvinia (Croxdale, 1978, 1979, 1981), Marsileaceae (Schmidt, 1978), Dennstaedtiaceae (Imaichi, 1980, 1982, 1983, 1984), Adiantum (Imaichi, 1988; Gupta & Bhambie, 1992), Botrychium (Imaichi & Nishida, 1986; Imaichi, 1989), Lygodium (Mueller, 1982a), Platycerium (Lee, 1989), and Gleicheniaceae (Hagemann & Schulz, 1978).
Contrary to Bierhorst's report, in Hymenophyllaceae, Stromatopteris, Gleicheniaceae, and Dennstaedtiaceae (see citations above), leaf initiation is described as occurring in lateral positions on the shoot apical meristem in essentially the same way as in other ferns.
Morphology, growth-habit, and classification in the family Gleicheniaceae.
This top-down system simplifies Gleicheniaceae leaf terminology by being applicable to all taxa in Gleicheniaceae and to partial-leaf herbarium specimens.
A note on some morphological terms of the leaf in the Gleicheniaceae.
Unlike all other Gleicheniaceae leaf terminology systems, the one we propose starts from the distal tips of the pinna and continues proximally to the leaf base.
Table 1 is a comparison of the major Gleicheniaceae leaf terminology systems over the past 60 years compared to our new system.
Therefore, he did not include Stromatopteris in his Gleicheniaceae leaf terminology system and used different terms to describe Stromatopteris leaf morphology.
To address these problems, we propose a new leaf terminology system that is universal to all taxa in Gleicheniaceae and will facilitate working with partialleaf herbarium specimens.
Spores indicate that other ferns that lived in the vicinity of Foulden Maar included tree ferns (Dicksoniaceae; Cyatheaceae), together with Gleicheniaceae, Psilotaceae and Schizaeaceae.
Representatives of tree fern families such as Cyatheaceae and Dicksoniaceae, and forest taxa including Gleicheniaceae, Hymenophyllaceae and Osmundaceae have been important components of the forest understory in New Zealand since at least the late Eocene and possibly since the late Cretaceous (Mildenhall, 1980; Cieraad & Lee, 2006).