Phylogenetic reconstruction revealed that HPPK-DHPS from seabuckthorn is sister to tomato ortholog and there seems to be gene duplication
in Arabidopsis and soybean orthologs.
This would be the case regardless of the mechanism of gene duplication
24 Although none of these 3 studies specified if these patients were treated with antidepressants, the association between CYP2D6 gene duplication
and suicide risk suggests CYP2D6's role in suicide risk might not be related solely to antidepressant metabolism.
Two models have been proposed to explain this phenomena; one that the nonsynonymous substitutions increase following gene duplication
and preserve the duplicates through positive selection (28).
In summary, the present method offers an accurate alternative to Southern blot and other methods described previously for 21OHD diagnosis and has the following advantages: (a) it requires only a small amount of DNA (50-100 ng); (b) it is neither time-consuming (2 h) nor laborious, and can analyze many samples simultaneously; and (c) it is effective in the detection of CYP21A2 gene duplication
, which is one of its most important advantages (21, 23, 25).
They suggested that the ancestral opsin evolved from gene duplications
into four opsins, as represented in chicken.
is a process where a single gene duplicates itself by a variety of mechanisms, giving birth to another gene with a similar DNA sequence.
Targeted gene duplication
and disruption for analyzing quantitative genetic traits in mice.
30) Philippe and Forterre (31) demonstrated that the phylogenies were highly confusing due to the combining effects of gene duplication
, gene loss, lateral gene transfer, and tree reconstruction artifacts.
Detection of these CYP2D6 polymorphisms results in the identification of 33 unique alleles, including seven CYP2D6 gene duplication
The first book to examine gene duplication
across all levels of biological organization, Evolution after Gene Duplication
presents a comprehensive picture of the mechanistic process by which gene duplication
may have played a role in generating biodiversity.
Processed pseudogenes lack introns and they are generated from reverse transcription of their mRNA or integration into silent regions of the genome (Milligan and Lipovich, 2015); whereas duplicated pseudogenes are inactive due to certain disabling features in their regulatory regions such as unfaithful gene duplication
, premature stop codons, frame shift mutations or removal of promoter region (Pink et al.
Among the various DNA sequence alterations that are now known to play dramatic roles in mutation are various degrees of gene duplication
, ranging from single genes to the entire genome.
The role of VAMP7 gene duplication
in causing these male birth defects was important because of the type of protein family it belongs to - it is a SNARE (Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor activating protein receptor) protein (a large protein superfamily consisting of more than 60 members in yeast and mammalian cell), Lamb said.
These gene duplication
events apparently give plants some of the genetic versatility they need to stay adapted to shifting environments.