The MWR of watermarking schemes based on additive embedding using blind correlation-based watermark detector can be approximated by the capacity of an additive white Gaussian noise
For example, in many cases it is possible to analytically compute the globally optimal signal set for Gaussian noise
The Gaussian noise
will change each pixel of the image by a small amount from its original value (Ayushi et al.
Figures 12, 13 and 14 show robustness results for white noise, Gaussian noise
, and salt & pepper noise, respectively.
But soft thresholding procedure is near optimal for the signals corrupted by additive white Gaussian noise
, however, some considerations applying the thresholding method (hard or soft thresholding method) to speech signal since the speech signal in the unvoiced region contains relatively lots of high frequency components that can be eliminated during the thresholding process.
This type of mixed noise arise when images already corrupted by Gaussian noise
during image acquisition got corrupted by impulse noise consequently during image transmission process.
Second watermark is called secondary watermark, which is a gray scale meaningful logo instead of randomly generated Gaussian noise
MSE is theoretically evaluated as mean for one whole quantization step according to (Skartlien & Oyehaug, 2005), where Gaussian noise
Another common despeckling approach is the homomorphic Wiener filter where the speckle noisy image is first subjected to a logarithmic transform and then filtered with an adaptive filter for additive Gaussian noise
In addition, RFXpress has the ability to add impairments like time synchronized Gaussian noise
at the WiMedia Packet level (Pre-amble, PPDU Header and PSDU), create tone nulling and introduce realistic interference to WiMedia waveforms from sources including WiFi (802.
The pulse function arbitrary noise generator is an adaptable and efficient test tool to accurately test devices and not your test source / stimulus up to 330 MHz pulse, 500 MHz sine waves and random and repeatable white Gaussian noise
Additive white Gaussian noise
with standard deviation equal to 5% of maximum signal magnitude is added to "Blocks" signal and Haar wavelet is used to construct a 4-level decomposition tree, as in Fig.
Results are simulated in both Rayleigh channel and additive white Gaussian noise
The channel output is contaminated by additive white Gaussian noise
with a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 40dB.
selectable crest factors for white Gaussian noise
lets engineers determine how much distortion to apply to a device during stress testing to meet various serial bus standards;