Last to separate were electro-weak interactions through their corresponding photon, W and Z gauge bosons
at 10-33 second.
He chronologically traces the history of the science in order to give readers a basic understanding of lepton, quarks, and gauge bosons
, the elementary building blocks underlying atomic structure.
The Standard Model suggests the forces experienced between charged electrons and protons and between elementary particles of quarks and leptons is due to the rapid exchange of "messenger particles," the gauge bosons
For example, creation of the universe in cosmology, generation of gauge bosons
, Higgs particles, t'Hooft monopoles, instantons and solitons in high energy elementary particle physics, and phenomena of laser action, superradiance, superconductivity, superfluidity, phase transition, magnetism and electret behavior in condensed matter physics are all well understood in terms of SBS.
The main objective of this project is to investigate important aspects of the theory, the so- called Standard Model, that have not yet been tested experimentally, such as the dynamics of the Higgs sector and its effects to the electroweak gauge boson
self-interactions The self-couplings of the massive gauge bosons
, W and Z, as well as their electromagnetic interactions will be studied in all experimentally accessible channels, using very accurate Standard Model predictions, including higher- order corrections, non-resonant contributions and finite width effects.
This model was applied to the mass distribution of celestial bodies in our solar system  as well as to the mass distribution of elementary particles such as baryons, mesons, leptons and gauge bosons
2] with the mass distribution of well-known particles--hadrons, leptons and gauge bosons
Since massless gauge bosons
live on the lightcone, a null boundary in Minkowski spacetime, upon performing the Wyler map, the gauge bosons
are confined to live on the Shilov boundary.